bigproject stage one


this is stage one of a big project, the art history field.

AHVS 346C: Visual Culture in Jane Austens World

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Research Assignment Stage 1

Assignment: This is the birth of your major project for this semester. To begin, you will do a little digging. Consider what about this period is of particular interest to you, what do you have questions about when you consider the late 18thC/early 19thC (1790-1820). Now, find an object/artwork around which you can base your line of inquiry. Finally, start investigating sources that will help you along the way.

This assignment includes your bibliography, including at least 4 preliminary sources (1 of which must be a primary source) as well as a short abstract introducing your proposed project. This must introduce your object and may ask the questions you are looking to unpack.
ALSO – indicate if you will give a
presentation or written essay for Stage 3.

The Specifics:

Ensure that your name, student number, course number, and word count for your abstract (300-400 words) all appear on the first page.
Ensure your citations (footnotes and bibliography) are consistent. There is a link to this on BrightSpace.
This assignment assesses your ability to follow instructions, conduct research, and begin a line of original inquiry. I will be looking for at least 4 different sources.
be tolerated. See your syllabus and the University of Victoria Calendar for details. Understanding what constitutes plagiarism is your responsibility and is vital as it could result in a failing grade or worse.

October 4, 2022, 2pm You will submit your work via BrightSpace in .pdf, .doc or .docx format. Failure to do this (if I have to chase you up for formatting) will result in a 1% deduction. This is worth 15% of your final grade; please review my lateness policies. [removed] [removed] Research Project Helpers:

Special Collections Browse – Search (

Special Collections at UVic, great to be able to access works in person! Good for both your actual object as well as your finding of primary sources.

Collection | British Museum

Art, artifacts, prints, drawings.

Online resources | The British Library (

Artworks, digitized books, newspapers, manuscripts.

V&A Explore The Collections (

Costume, art, manuscripts, prints, SO MUCH here.

Annotated Bibliographies:

An annotated bibliography includes descriptions and explanations of your listed sources beyond basic citation information. Bibliographies demonstrate that you have done valid research and provide a point of reference for readers seeking more.
An annotated bibliography provides specific information about each source. As a researcher, you become an expert on your topic: you will have the ability to explain the content of your sources and assess their usefulness.
A successful annotated bibliography will prove you have read and understand your sources and encourages you to think critically about the content of the works you are using.
Your annotations will include explanations of main points/purpose of the source, why you are choosing to use it, and how it connects to other sources in light of your overall project.
You can certainly find examples of these online if you need further guidance. THE UNIVERSITY OF VICTORIA



Bibliography: Rules 2

Sample Bibliography 3

Footnotes and Endnotes: Why, When, Where and How 4

Sample Footnotes / Endnotes 5

Punctuation Style for Bibliographies and Notes 6

Citing Visual Material 7

Guidelines to Academic Integrity: Quotations and Paraphrasing 8

Plagiarism 9

How to Cite Primary Sources 11

Examples in this guide follow the MHRA Style Book: Notes for Authors, Editors, and Writers of Theses,
4th edn (London: Modern Humanities Research Association, 1991).


A bibliography lists all the sources you consult for your research paper. It must follow these RULES:

The bibliography must be arranged in alphabetical order by the surname or family name of the author.
It should be single-spaced with a space between entries; second and subsequent lines of a bibliographic

entry should be indented.
The bibliography is placed on a separate page or pages at the end of the essay but is paginated as if it

were part of the essay.
The titles of books, journals, films and works of art are underlined or italicized; the titles of articles and

unpublished works such as theses are set off by quotation marks.
Titles without authors are placed alphabetically according to the first noun of the title. See Sample

Bibliography, (3).
When there is more than one item by the same author, the second and subsequent entries may replace the

author’s name with an underline. See Sample Bibliography, (11).
References to page numbers appear in a bibliography only when the source is a journal article or an

individual essay in an edited book.

The basic bibliographic entry requires the following information:

Book: author(s) (surname first), title of the book in italics, place of publication, name of the publisher, and
date of publication.

Thomas, Christopher, The Architecture of the West Building, National Gallery of Art (Washington, DC: National
Gallery of Art, 1992).

Journal Article: author(s) (surname first), title of the article in quotation marks, name of the journal in
italics, volume number, issue number (if applicable), year of publication, and page numbers of the entire

Harding, Catherine, ‘The Production of Medieval Mosaics: the Orvieto Evidence’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers
43 (1989), 73-102.

Internet Source: author (if known) (surname first), title of document or page or article in quotation marks,
title of the complete work, series, set of pages, or website in italics, date of publication or last revision if
known (otherwise use n.d. = no date), and .

Wright, Astri, ‘Why the Art Market Needs Art History; Why it Does Not Pay to Steal Art’, South East Asian
Art File, 1997, .


The examples in the bibliography follow the MHRA Style Book.

This list of sources contains examples of the following types of bibliographic entries: (1) a radio program;
(2) a public lecture (published); (3) an exhibition catalogue ( no author or editor); (4) an article in a journal;
(5) reissue of a book (with a translator); (6) a thesis; (7) a book with a translator and editor; (8) a conference
paper (unpublished); (9) proceedings of a conference; (10) a book/monograph; (11) a book review in a
journal (by same author as 10); (12) an exhibition catalogue (authored); (13) printed edition of a rare source
(14) an article in an edited book; (15) a dictionary entry; (16) an article published on the web.



Antliff, Allan, ‘Anarchy, Art and Activism’. First broadcast on Ideas (CBC Radio One, June 2002).

Beckmann, Max, ‘On My Painting’, London lecture, 21 July 1938, quoted in Herschel B. Chipp, Theories of
Modern Art: A Source Book by Artists and Critics (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969),
pp. 188-9.

L’Europe des Anjou. Aventure des Princes Angevins du XIIIe au XVe sicle, exhib. cat. (Fontevraud,
June-September 2001) (Paris: Somogy ditions d’art, 2001).

Harding, Catherine, ‘The Production of Medieval Mosaics: the Orvieto Evidence’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers
43 (1989), 73-102.

Kramer, Heinrich and Sprenger, James, The Malleus Malificarum, trans., intro., biblio., and notes by
Montague Summers (New York: Dover Publications, 1971; first published London: John Rodker,

Liscomb, Kathlyn, ‘Early Ming Painters: Predecessors and Elders of Shen Chou (1427-1509)’ (unpublished
PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 1984).

Marinetti, Filippo Tommaso, The Futurist Cookbook, trans. by Suzanne Brill; ed. and notes by Lesley
Chamberlain (San Francisco: Bedford Arts, 1989).

McLarty, Lianne, ‘Alien/nation: Abductions, Invasions and the Ideologies of ETs’, paper presented at the 22nd
Annual Conference on Film and Literature, Tallahassee, FL, January 1997.

Schmidt, Victor M., ed., Italian Panel Painting of the Duecento and Trecento, Studies in the History of Art 61,
Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts Symposium Papers XXXVIII (CASVA Symposium,
Florence and Washington, June and October 1998) (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art; New
Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 2002).

Thomas, Christopher, The Architecture of the West Building, National Gallery of Art (Washington, DC: National
Gallery of Art, 1992).

, Review of The Glory of Ottawa: Canada’s First Parliament Buildings by Carolyn A. Young, in Journal
of the Society of Architectural Historians 56, no. 2 (1997), pp. 232-4.

Tuele, Nicholas and Liane Davison, Art in Victoria 1960/1986, exhib. cat. ( July-October 1986) (Victoria: Art
Gallery of Greater Victoria, 1986).

Vasari, Giorgio, Le vite de’ pi eccellenti pittori scultori e architettori nelle redazioni del 1550 e 1568, 6 vols.,
text by R. Bettarini, commentary by P. Barocchi (Florence: Sansoni, 1966-87).

Welch, Anthony, ‘Iran: Reaction and Revolution in the Post-Modern Era’, Reflections on Cultural Policy,
Past, Present, and Future, ed. by H. Coward, R. Blaser and E. Alderson (Calgary: Calgary Institute for
the Humanities, 1993), pp. 139-162.

Wied, Alexander, ‘Pieter Bruegel I (the elder)’, in The Dictionary of Art, ed. by Jane Turner, 34 vols (London and
New York: Grove, 1996), vol. 4, pp. 894-910.

Wright, Astri, ‘Why the Art Market Needs Art History; Why it Does Not Pay to Steal Art’, South East Asian
Art File, 1997, .



The Why, When, Where and How of Citing Sources

A. Why? To acknowledge words, ideas or opinions that are not your own and to credit the source of any

information you use that is not commonly known or might be controversial.

B. When? Whenever you borrow words and/or ideas (direct quotes and/or paraphrased passages) from

another author (including professors and other students) or present material that is not common
knowledge. This allows the reader to check the precise source of your information and allows your
professor to judge your ability to synthesize your source material. You may also add other explanatory
material and additional bibliographic sources to your note — relevant material which, if placed in your
text, might interrupt the flow of your argument.

C. Where? You may put notes at the foot of the page (footnotes) or in a list at the end of the essay
(endnotes). Use the (Author-Date system) in your Art History & Visual Studies essays only with the
permission of your instructor.

A note number (superscript) appears in the text of an essay usually at the end of a quotation or of a

sentence which contains borrowed material. The note number follows all punctuation including any
quotation marks. This number refers the reader to an explanatory footnote or endnote.1

Number the notes consecutively throughout the essay.2 If you number notes manually be careful to keep
them in order as you edit your text.

D. How to Format Footnotes and Endnotes?

Notes are single-spaced.
At the first citation of a source provide the full reference in your note.
The basic bibliographic information is retained in the notes with the addition of specific page references.
Footnotes and endnotes are not arranged alphabetically so the author’s name appears in natural order.
If you cite a source more than once, in the second and subsequent citations you may use a short form:

author’s surname, an abbreviated version of the title, and the page number. This is recommended where
you have more than one source by the same author. If you have only one publication by any given
author, you may use the author’s name alone, followed by the page number, thus omitting the title.
Examples are given in the Sample Notes, A – D.

Ibid. is an abbreviation of ibidem, a Latin word meaning ‘in the same place’. The use of Ibid. is going out
of fashion because, when editing with a word processor, the use of Ibid. can cause error and confusion if
you delete or move the original citation. If there is no page number after Ibid., it means the source is
exactly the same as in the immediately previous note. When followed by a page number, it refers to the
same book or article as in the immediately previous note but to a different page. See the Sample Notes,
A 3 and A 4.


A short form for second and subsequent citations is given after each example. Remember, you need to
provide the reader with the exact source of the information while keeping your notes as streamlined as
possible. The examples in these notes follow the MHRA Style Book. Whichever format you decide to use,
be consistent!

1 Your word processing program should correlate number and note automatically.
2 Your program should do this automatically.



A. Book/ Monograph – Single Author

1. Christopher Thomas, The Architecture of the West Building, National Gallery of Art (Washington, DC: National Gallery
of Art, 1992), pp. 64-5.
2. Thomas, West Building, pp. 64-5. (Not Thomas, p. 64-5, because there are two items by this author in the biblio)
3. Ibid.
4. Ibid., 66.

B. Book/Monograph – Two or three authors

5. Kenneth Clark and David Finn, The Florence Baptistery Doors (London: Thames and Hudson, 1980), pp. 50-68.
6. Clark and Finn, Florence Baptistery Doors, pp. 50-68. (Alternatively: Clark and Finn, pp. 50-68.)

C. Book/Monograph – Four or more authors

7. Alison Prentice et al., Canadian Women: A History, 2nd edn (Toronto: Harcourt Brace, 1996), p. 43.
8. Prentice et al., Canadian Women, p. 45. (Alternatively: Prentice et al., p. 45.)

D. Journal Article

9. Catherine Harding, ‘The Production of Medieval Mosaics: the Orvieto Evidence’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 43
(1989), pp. 73-102 (p. 85).
10. Harding, ‘Medieval Mosaics’, p. 93. (Alternatively, Harding, p. 93.)

E. Article in an edited book

11. Anthony Welch, ‘Iran: Reaction and Revolution in the Post-Modern Era’, in Reflections on Cultural Policy, Past,
Present, and Future, ed. by H. Coward, R. Blaser and E. Alderson (Calgary: Calgary Institute for the Humanities,
1993), pp. 139-162 (p. 150).
12. Welch, ‘Iran’, pp. 150-3.

F. Thesis/Dissertation

13. Kathlyn Maureen Liscomb, ‘ Early Ming Painters: Predecessors and Elders of Shen Chou (1427-1509)’
(unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1984), pp. 105-11.
14. Liscomb, ‘Early Ming Painters’, p. 108.

G. Exhibition Catalogue

15. Nicholas Tuele and Liane Davison, Art in Victoria 1960/1986, exhib. cat. (Victoria: Art Gallery of Greater Victoria,
1986), p. 11.
16. Tuele and Davison, Art in Victoria, p. 10.

H. Newspaper and Popular Magazine items

In all instances except The Times (published in London England), do not include ‘the’ in titles of newspapers.
If the newspaper contains sections, the section should be identified, as here (sec. F).

17. Robert Amos, ‘Artist brought modernism to Victoria’, Times Colonist, Thursday 21 August 2003, sec. F, p. 4.
18. Amos, ‘Artist’, sec. F, p. 4.

I. Films / Screen Arts

19. Steven Spielberg, dir., Schindler’s List, MCA Universal Studios, 1993.


J. Book Review

20. Christopher Thomas, Review of The Glory of Ottawa: Canada’s First Parliament Buildings by Carolyn A. Young,
in Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 56, no. 2 (1997), 232-4 (p. 234).
21. Thomas, Review of The Glory of Ottawa, p. 234. (Alternatively: Thomas, Review, p. 234.)

K. Internet Sources

The following is a simple, practical style based on the Chicago style and adapted from Andrew Harnack and
Eugene Kleppinger, Online (New York: St. Martins, 1997).
In place of page numbers, give the date on which you accessed the website.

22. Astri Wright, ‘Why the Art Market needs Art History; Why it does not Pay to Steal Art’, South East Asian Art File,
1997, , 3 September 2003.
23. Wright, ‘Why the Art Market’.


There are many different recognized ways to cite sources in your text. When you submit an article or book
for publication, the journal or book publisher will provide you with detailed instructions — each has its own
preferences. Your professor may recommend a preferred style, or he/she might refer you to the bibliography
and notes in your textbook or reading assignments. In the Art History & Visual Studies style guide the
British standard MHRA Style Book has been used because of its simpler formatting. Alternatively, the U.S.
standard is The Chicago Manual of Style. Whichever punctuation system you decide to use, remember
to be consistent!

The MHRA Style Book: Notes for Authors, Editors, and Writers of Theses, 4th edn (London: Modern
Humanities Research Association, 1991) (Ref PN147/M65/1991).

The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993) (Ref Z253/ C572/
1993) .

The following examples show the basic differences between the MHRA and the Chicago styles, using a
bibliographic entry followed by its reference in a footnote.

Book (MHRA):
Gibson-Wood, Carol, Jonathan Richardson: Art Theorist of the English Enlightenment (London and New
Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000).

33. Carol Gibson-Wood, Jonathan Richardson: Art Theorist of the English Enlightenment (London and New Haven, CT:
Yale University Press, 2000) pp. 78-84.

Book (Chicago):
Gibson-Wood, Carol. Jonathan Richardson: Art Theorist of the English Enlightenment. London and New
Haven, CT.: Yale University Press, 2000.

33. Carol Gibson-Wood, Jonathan Richardson: Art Theorist of the English Enlightenment, (London and New Haven, CT.:
Yale University Press, 2000), 78-84.

Article (MHRA):
Liscomb, Kathlyn Maureen, ‘Li Bai, a Hero Among Poets, in the Visual, Dramatic and Literary Arts of
China’, The Art Bulletin, 81 (1999), 354-389.

34. Kathlyn Maureen Liscomb, ‘Li Bai, a Hero Among Poets, in the Visual, Dramatic and Literary Arts of China’, The

Art Bulletin, 81 (1999), 354-389 (p. 355).

Article (Chicago):
Liscomb, Kathlyn Maureen. “Li Bai, a Hero Among Poets, in the Visual, Dramatic and Literary Arts of
China.” The Art Bulletin 81 (1999): 354-389.

34. Kathlyn Maureen Liscomb, “Li Bai, a Hero Among Poets, in the Visual, Dramatic and Literary Arts of China,” The
Art Bulletin 81 (1999): 355.
(In the Chicago style, the complete page numbers of the article are not given in the notes.)


If you discuss works of art and/or architecture in your research paper, you should include illustrations of
significant works. You must number the illustrations consecutively and refer to the numbers, e.g. (fig. 3), at
the relevant points throughout your text.

Your illustrations can be either photocopies from books or images downloaded from the internet. They may
be pasted into your paper on separate sheets of paper or integrated into your text.
When you include illustrations you must provide identifying information either in a caption beneath the
image or in a list of illustrations included in your paper. The source of the illustration (book, journal,
internet, etc) must also be given with specific page and figure numbers or internet URL. This can be an
abbreviated form of the reference which must be included in full in your Bibliography. If you were to visit
any work/monument and take your own photograph of it, you would not need to cite a source. Instead you
would add (Photo: Author). Some examples follow which indicate the kind of information required for
captions or credit lists for illustrations in various media:

Paintings, Sculpture, Drawings, Furniture, Pottery, Installations, etc. — Not in an exhibition

Artist’s name (if known), title of the work in italics. Place of origin (if known). Medium and measurements
(if applicable), date, present location (if applicable). Source of illustration.

Fig. 1. Musicians and Dancers, detail of wall painting, Tomb of the Lionesses, Tarquinia, c.480-470 BC. Stokstad, Art
History, p. 231, fig. 6-10.

Bibliography: Stokstad, Marilyn, Art History (New York: Harry N. Abrams; Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall,

Fig. 2. Olowe of Ise, Veranda Post (Opo) from the Palace of the Ogaga (king) of Ikere. Nigeria, Ikere, Yoruba. Wood,
traces of pigment, h. 153.7 cm., 1910/14. Art Institute of Chicago (1984.550).
, 5 September 2003.

Bibliography: Olowe of Ise, African & Amerindian Art, Art Institute of Chicago, n.d. (= no date [referring to website])

Artefacts in an Exhibition

Artist (if known), title of item in quotation marks, origin, date. Medium, measurements, owner or collection.
Display or exhibition title in italics (location, date of exhibition), catalogue entry number (if applicable).
Source of illustration.

Fig. 3. ‘Steelyard weight and hook’, Early Byzantine, 5th century. Weight: bronze filled with lead/ hook: brass, 23.2 x
10.8 cm, 2.29 kg, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Mirror of the Medieval World (Metropolitan Museum of
Art, March-July 1999), cat. no. 31. Wixom, Mirror, no. 31, pp. 26-27.

Bibliography: Wixom, William, Mirror of the Medieval World, exhib. cat. (New York, March-July 1999) (New
York: Metropolitan Museum of Art and Harry N. Abrams, 1999).


Photographer’s name (if known), title or subject in italics. Photographic technique (if applicable), date,
present location. Source of illustration.

Fig. 4. Southworth and Hawes Studio, Boston, Harriet Beecher Stowe. Daguerreotype, c. 1856, New York,
Metropolitan Museum of Art. Pollack, Picture History, p. 26, top.

Bibliography: Pollack, Peter, The Picture History of Photography (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1977).


When writing about and illustrating architecture, begin with the general (plan, elevation, section) and work
towards the specific: exterior from foundation up through walls, fenestration, string-courses to roof and
chimneys / interior from front (point of entry ) to back and from ground to upper storeys.

When citing buildings begin with the architect’s name (if known), the title of the building (not in italics),
location, date (from the planning to the dedication or opening, if known). Specific drawing or view.

Fig. 5. Fuller & Jones Architects, Canadian Parliament Buildings, Ottawa, 1859-66. View from the northwest (Photo:

GUIDELINES to ACADEMIC INTEGRITY: Quotations and Paraphrasing

Start out right! When taking research notes, indicate with quotation marks the material that you copy
verbatim. Whether copying verbatim or paraphrasing, note the page number and page breaks in the text. The
book may not be available when you write the essay; get it right the first time! As a rule of thumb, a phrase is
two or more consecutive substantive words; prepositions and articles do not usually count.

A. Common knowledge, presented in your own words, requires neither quotation marks nor a note.

Van Gogh’s The Starry Night is not an accurate rendering of the French landscape but an
evocation of the painter’s deeply felt emotions.

B. Paraphrase. Words or ideas borrowed but put in your own words do not require quotation marks but

the source must be cited in a footnote/endnote.

The dramatic architectural spaces created in the works of Remedios Varo and Giorgio de Chirico
were the result of both artists’ deliberate reference to their previous work designing for the theatre.3

C. Quotations. If you borrow exact words, phrases or sentences, you must provide a footnote or endnote

giving the exact source. Be sure to quote the words exactly as you find them in the text.

Short direct quotation. A short quotation requires quotation marks and a footnote/endnote.

“One explanation for the intensity of van Gogh’s feelings in this case focuses on the then-popular
theory that after death people journeyed to a star, where they continued their lives”.4

3 Janet A. Kaplan, Unexpected Journeys. The Art and Life of Remedios Varo (London: Virago Press and New York:
Abbebille Press, 1988), pp. 207-8. For a discussion of de Chirico’s works for the theatre, see Marianne W. Martin,
‘On de Chirico’s Theater’, in De Chirico, ed. by William Rubin (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1982), pp. 81-


Long direct quotation. If an extract covers more than three lines of text, do not use quotation marks

but set off the quoted material by indenting it and by single spacing it within your double-spaced
text. Quotation marks are redundant around such indented material. Provide a footnote at the end of
the quotation. If you are quoting a complete paragraph, indent the first line of your text as shown
below. (see example below)

Quotation with some omissions. Indicate the omission with an ellipsis (3 dots). If the omission is at

the end of the sentence, provide 3 dots for the ellipsis and 1 for the usual period,.
NB. If you omit material, make sure you do not alter the author’s meaning.

One of the earliest examples of Expressionism is The Starry Night, which van

Gogh painted from the window in his cell in a mental asylum. Above the quiet town is a sky
pulsating with celestial rhythms and ablaze with exploding stars. One explanation for the
intensity of van Gogh’s feelings in this case focuses on the then-popular theory that after
death people journeyed to a star, where they continued their lives. The idea is given
visible form in this painting by the cypress tree, a traditional symbol of both death and
eternal life, which dramatically rises to link the terrestrial with the stars.5

Quoted material within a paraphrase. Indicate quotations with quotation marks and a footnote.

Integrate quotations smoothly into your text. Your sentence must agree grammatically with the
quotation! Explanatory details or translations of foreign words may be added in [square brackets].

To support her argument that the power of the Angevin monarchy of Naples over Florentine politics
is reflected in the civic art and architecture of Florence, Elliott refers to the Angevin coat of arms
over a doorway of the Bargello and to “Giovanni Villani’s report that in 1316 [King] Robert’s vicar,
the Count of Battifolle, oversaw the construction of a large part of the new [Bargello] palace”.6


A. What is Plagiarism?

On plagiarism and its penalties see the 2003-4 University of Victoria Calendar, pp. 22-23.

Plagiarism takes many forms including:
Submitting the work of another person as original work
Submitting an assignment or part of an assignment written for another course or purpose
Collaborating on an assignment when asked to hand in individual work
Paraphrasing or directly quoting material from a source without sufficient or appropriate

acknowledgement (footnotes / endnotes, bibliography)
Failing to differentiate clearly between your words and the language of your source
Incorrect use of quotations and quotation marks
Submitting a paper taken from the Internet. Material posted on the Internet is copyrighted.

Downloading, cutting and pasting internet texts into your term papers is plagiarism. Your instructor can
trace it!

4 Marilyn Stokstad, Art History (New York: Harry N. Abrams; Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995), pp.
5 Stokstad, Art History, p. 1037.
6 Janis Elliott, ‘The Judgement of the Commune: The Frescoes of the Magdalen Chapel in Florence’, Zeitschrift fr
Kunstgeschichte 61, no. 4 (1998), 509-19 (p. 516).


B. Avoid pitfalls. The following passage might appear in a student essay on Vincent van Gogh. The phrase
marked in bold is plagiarized. It is copied word for word and does not have quotation marks. No footnote is

Van Gogh’s The Starry Night is not an accurate rendering of the French landscape but an
evocation of the painter’s deeply felt emotions. The turbulent night sky, bright with a dazzling
moon and swirling stars, is pulsating with celestial rhythms.

Without citing the source of the phrase in bold the student who wrote such a passage would be guilty of
plagiarism. The rule is that when two or more important words are used in the same form and juxtaposition
as the original, they must be placed in quotation marks.
Even with a footnote/endnote at the end of the sentence and quotation marks around the phrase highlighted in
bold, the student would not do well because the passage contains little original thought, organization or

C. The University of Victoria now has a Web-based plagiarism detection service which
your professor may use to determine if you have plagiarized someone else’s work. is an
educational tool that can assist both faculty and students. Turnitin analyzes papers submitted by students or
instructors for similarities to other documents published on the Internet or stored in the Turnitin data base.
Peer review is another valuable learning tool of the Turnitin service that permits students to anonymously
view and critique other students’ papers. Students should refer to the instructions at Student Turnitin
Registration, (2003) or, for more information, write to


Primary sources consist of archival materials, manuscripts, and early printed editions of rare books. Primary
sources are generally placed in a separate section as the first part of the bibliography. They are arranged
alphabetically by the location of the archives or libraries in which they are found. When footnoting primary
sources use an abbreviated form.

At the beginning of your Bibliography:


Ottawa, National Archives of Canada ( NAC), Ramezay Family Collection, MG 18 H54.

Vatican City, Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana (BAV), Cod. Vat. Lat. 6781, Onuphrii Panvinii Veronensis
Fratris Eremitae Augustiniani De Ecclesiees [sic] Urbis Romae, Rome, 16th century.

Victoria, British Columbia Archives (BCA), Vertical Files, Emily Carr, ‘Carr House full of Memories’,
unidentified newspaper clipping, n.d.

Victoria, University of Victoria, Special Collections, Brown Collection, 1989-069-5, Papal Bull of Sixtus IV,

Washington DC, Library of Congress (LC), Manuscripts, Taft Papers, series 6, ‘Letter of MacVeagh to Taft’,
8 March 1912.

In your footnotes / endnotes:

Archival Material

24. BCA, Vertical Files, Emily Carr, ‘Carr House Full of Memories’, unidentified newspaper clipping, np.
25. BCA, Emily Carr, np. (= no page numbers)

Archival Sources at Second Hand or in a Published Document

26. BAV, Cod. Vat. Lat. 6781, Onuphrii PanviniiVeronensis Fratris Eremitae Augustiniani De Ecclesiees [sic] Urbis
Romae, f. 315r, transcribed in P. Lauer, Le Palais de Latran, Etude historique e archologique (Paris: Ernest Leroux,
1911), p. 434.
27. BAV, Cod. Vat. Lat. 6781, f. 315r, in Lauer, Le Palais, p. 434.

If you do not consult the archival document/manuscript directly (that is, access it only through the secondary
source), only the secondary source needs to appear in your bibliography:

Lauer, P., Le Palais de Latran, Etude historique e archologique (Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1911).


Fishbone diagram

See attached

Barrier Analysis

Part 1: Barrier Analysis Worksheet


Intended function


leaking pressure relief valve

This was a barrier for transferring liquid propane by three propane service technicians from one tank to another.

The transfer of propane from one tank to another did not happen as intended, as propane vapour was released and caused a flash of fire.

damage to the filter valve

After the leakage, the technicians moved the tank from its installed place and replaced it with a new tank. After that, they wanted to use a filter valve to evacuate the old tank.

The evacuation of the old tank was not performed as intended. This was because the damage to the filter valve made the propane stick and release vapor. The propane vapor reached a truck parked near the location and ignited, which caused a fire in the kitchen house.

Attempt to close the valve

A group of firefighters came to assist in putting out the fire and attempted to close the valve. They also tried to move the three service technicians from the fire and rush them to the hospital.

The attempt by the firefighters to put off and attempt to close the valve before it caused more damage did not work as planned. This was because the valve had been sheared off. The chicken house was entirely damaged. They managed to rush the three injured service technicians to the hospital. However, the three were severely injured and died in the hospital.

Part 2: potential causal factors

Firefighters should let propane technicians work on propane tanks in case of emergencies. In this case, when the firefighters were called, they tried to cool the tank using water and attempted to close the valve instead of containing the fire from reaching the truck. By doing this, the fire spread got the car and burned the chicken house.
Placing a tank containing a thousand gallons of propane behind the chicken house is risky. The owner should have put it far away from the chicken house. Another causal factor that led to ignition was a tank-to-tank transfer using a filter valve instead of a pressure relief valve (Ferrara et al.,2008).

Unidentified causal factors

The report does not indicate whether the propane tank service technicians had the required qualifications and experience to service a leaking tank and transfer propane from one tank to another. The report does not indicate the time taken to rush the burned service technicians to the hospital. Evacuation of casualties during an emergency is crucial and saves lives.
On the report, the service technicians were working without supervision. To avoid such incidences, junior technicians are supposed to work under supervision.
The report does not indicate the ignition source after the propane’s leakage. After the valves failed, the propane leaked, and fire ignited, which burned a truck, the service technicians and the chicken house. However, there is nowhere in the report the source of the fire was indicated. In addition to that, the cause of death of the service technicians is not shown. More analysis should be undertaken to tell whether it was the severity of burns, infection of the burn wounds, inhalational burns or other causes.


Ferrara, G., Willacy, S. K., Phylaktou, H. N., Andrews, G. E., Di Benedetto, A., Salzano, E., & Russo, G. (2008). Venting of gas explosion through relief ducts: Interaction between internal and external explosions.
Journal of hazardous materials,
155(1-2), 358-368. Read the U.S. Chemical Safety Board investigation report of the 2007 propane explosion at the Little General Store in Ghent, WV. The final report can be read/downloaded at the following link:
Additional information on the incident, including a video summary, can be found at the following link:
NOTE: This is the same investigation report used to complete the assignments in Units IV and V.
Complete the assignment as detailed below.
Part I: From the information in the report and from the information you developed for the assignments in Unit IV (events and causal factors [ECF] chart) and Unit V (barrier analysis), create a fishbone diagram that illustrates the relationship between the causal factors and the accident. In your diagram, the backbone of the fish should represent the accident, and the big bones should represent the people, procedures, environment, equipment, and policies.
Part II: On a separate page, discuss what new information about the accident is revealed in the chart, and describe how that information might be used to identify potential corrective actions. This part of the assignment should be a minimum of one page in length.
Upload Parts I and II as a single document. For Part II of the assignment, you should use academic sources to support your thoughts. Any outside sources used, including the sources mentioned in the assignment, must be cited using APA format and must be included on a references page.


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