Please read the case and answer the 5questions that follow. Note:It isimportant you reference your textbook, page 117- 140 when completing this assignment (for all the questions below).
Case: Fashion and Safety at Bloomingdales
Bloomingdales is a chain of luxury department stores owned by Macys with more than 10,000 employees in 12 states. Founded in 1872, Bloomingdale’s has been considered a destination store to find the latest fashion design. Although retail is a safe job compared to manufacturing, there are still numerous ways that employees can get hurt on the job. For example, employees can be injured by falling off ladders while changing displays, incorrectly using boxcutters to open packages, or not following correct procedures cleaning up broken glass on the retail floor when customers drop merchandise or knock it off display shelves.
Bloomingdale’s wants to reduce safety claims to lower costs by improving employee knowledge of safe practices, providing consistent safety training across departments and stores, and encouraging employees to call out their peers safe and unsafe work behaviors and practices.
Bloomingdale’s currently uses a combination of approaches for increasing employees safety awareness, including posting safety messages in break areas, providing classroom training, and holding pre-shift meetings. But Bloomingdale’s doesnt believe employees are getting a consistent safety message and it doesnt know whether they understand safety practices and how to apply them while they are working.
Bloomingdale’s is looking for a training approach that (1) can be completed by employees during their work hours without taking them off of the retail floor, (2) appeals to a diverse, multigenerational workforce, (3) is flexible enough so that it can be customized to address the unique safety challenges that stores and departments have, and (4) provides a way to measure employee learning and link their learning back to business goals.
Questions(Note: be sure to reference your textbook when completing these questions).
When a needs assessment is completed, one of the key things to figure out is if training is the best solution. Do you believe reducing employee injuries at Bloomingdales can be solved through training? Explain your answer.
Your Employee Training & Development Links to an external site. describes 7 techniques that can be used to conduct a needs assessment. However, in practice, the 5 most common techniques include:
Describe the technique(s) you would use to conduct a needs assessment for Bloomingdales. Explain why you would use the technique(s).
3. Would you involve employees in the needs assessment? If so, why would you include them?
4. Would you involve managers in the needs assessment? If so, why would you include them?
5. What do you believe is the most difficult part of conducting a needs assessment? Explain your answer.
Hint! To answer #5, you are encouraged to research potential challenges that may happen when needs assessments are conducted. Here are two examples of articles that may help:
7 Obstacles To Consider During Training Needs Links to an external site.
Four Barriers to Consider When Conducting a Training Needs Links to an external site.
Raymond A. Noe
Training, development, and career management are no longer in the category of nice to do;
they are now a must do for companies to gain competitive advantage and meet employee
expectations. The Fifth Edition of Employee Training and Development will equip students with a
solid background in the fundamentals of training and development in order to meet the demands
of todays global work environment.
Employee Training and Development, 5e retains the lively writing style, inspiring examples, bal-
anced approach to research and theory, and emphasis on new technology and strategic training
from previous editions.
New to the Fifth Edition:
New and expanded coverage of current topics and issues, such as outsourcing training,
business-embedded training functions, intangible assets and human capital, implications
of the aging workforce for training and development, new technologies in training, including
virtual worlds such as Second Life, and designing programs, courses, and lessons.
New chapter vignettes begin each chapter. For example, Chapter 8 (E-learning and Use
of Technology in Training) highlights how Dunkin Donuts uses a blended learning ap-
proach to help franchises run a successful and profitable business.
Each chapter now includes a brief case featuring a training, development or learning issue
a company is facing. The case questions ask students to consider the issue and make
recommendations based on applying the chapter content.
For more information, visit Employee Training and Development, 5e online at
9 7 8 0 0 7 3 5 3 0 3 4 5
9 0 0 0 0
1045392 8/29/09 C
Raymond A. Noe
The Ohio State University
noe30344_fm_i-xviii.qxd 9/17/09 17:17 Page i
EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Published by McGraw-Hill/Irwin, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the
Americas, New York, NY, 10020. Copyright 2010, 2008, 2005, 2002, 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies,
Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any
means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or
broadcast for distance learning.
Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOC/DOC 0 9
Vice president and editor-in-chief: Brent Gordon
Publisher: Paul Ducham
Director of development: Ann Torbert
Managing development editor: Laura Hurst Spell
Editorial assistant: Jane Beck
Vice president and director of marketing: Robin J. Zwettler
Associate marketing manager: Jaime Halteman
Vice president of editing, design and production: Sesha Bolisetty
Project manager: Dana M. Pauley
Senior production supervisor: Debra R. Sylvester
Design coordinator: Joanne Mennemeier
Executive producer, media technology: Mark Christianson
Cover design: Joanne Mennemeier
Typeface: 10/12 Times New Roman
Compositor: Laserwords Private Limited
Printer: R. R. Donnelley
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Noe, Raymond A.
Employee training and development / Raymond A. Noe.5th ed.
ISBN-13: 978-0-07-353034-5 (alk. paper)
ISBN-10: 0-07-353034-4 (alk. paper)
1. EmployeesTraining of. I. Title.
noe30344_fm_i-xviii.qxd 9/24/09 16:08 Page ii
Rev. Confirming Pages
This book is dedicated to the many who have helped to train
and develop me along the way, including
My wife: Caroline
My kids: Ray, Tim, and Melissa
My parents: Raymond J. and Mildred Noe
The many close friends who have touched my heart and made
The teachers who have shared their wisdom
The graduate students who have worked with me over the years
Raymond A. Noe
noe30344_fm_i-xviii.qxd 9/17/09 17:17 Page iii
Traditionally, training and development was not viewed as an activity that could help com-
panies create value and successfully deal with competitive challenges. Today, that view
has changed. Companies that use innovative training and development practices are likely
to report better financial performance than their competitors that do not. Training and
development also helps a company to meet competitive challenges. Current recessionary
economic times have resulted in cuts in training and development budgets. However, com-
panies need to continue to rely on efficient and effective training practices to help employ-
ees strengthen or increase their skills in order to improve or make new products, generate
new and innovative ideas, and provide high quality customer service. Also, development
activities and career management are needed to prepare employees for managerial and
leadership positions and to attract, motivate, and retain talented employees at all levels and
in all jobs. Training, development, and career management are no longer in the category of
nice to dothey are a must do in order for companies to gain a competitive advantage
and meet employees expectations.
Businesses today must compete in the global marketplace, and the diversity of the work
force continues to increase. As a result, companies need to train employees to work with
persons from different cultures both in the United States and abroad. New technologies
such as Web-based training and iPods reduce the costs associated with bringing employees
to a central location for training. At the same time, the challenge is how to ensure that these
training methods include the necessary conditions (practice, feedback, self-pacing, etc.)
for learning to occur. Also, through the blended learning approach companies are seeking
the best balance between private, self-paced, technology-based training (such as online
learning), and methods that allow interpersonal interaction among trainees (such as class-
room instruction or active learning).
The role of training has broadened beyond training program design. Effective instruc-
tional design remains important, but training managers, human resource experts, and
trainers are increasingly being asked to create systems to motivate employees to learn, cre-
ate knowledge, and share that knowledge with other employees in the company. Training
has moved from an emphasis on a one-time event to the creation of conditions for learning
that can occur through collaboration, online learning, traditional classroom training, or a
combination of methods. There is increased recognition that learning occurs outside the
boundaries of a formal training course.
Also, the employee-employer relationship has changed. Due to rapidly changing busi-
ness environments and competition that can quickly cause profits to shrink and skill needs
to change, companies are reluctant to provide job security to employees. At the same time,
as employees see downsizing take place (or experience it themselves!), they are reluctant
to be fully committed to company goals and values. As a result, both employees and com-
panies are concerned with developing future skills and managing careers. Companies want
a work force that is motivated and productive, has up-to-date skills, and can quickly learn
new skills to meet changing customer and marketplace needs. Employees want to develop
skills that not only are useful for their current jobs but also are congruent with their
noe30344_fm_i-xviii.qxd 9/24/09 16:08 Page iv
Rev. Confirming Pages
personal interests and values. Employees are interested in developing skills that can help
them remain employable with either their current employer or a future one. Given the
increasing time demands of work, employees are also interested in maintaining balance
between work and nonwork interests.
The chapter coverage of Employee Training and Development reflects the traditional as
well as the broadening role of training and development in organizations. Chapter 1 intro-
duces the student to the role of training and development in companies. Chapter 2, Strate-
gic Training, discusses how training practices and the organization of the training function
can support business goals. Because companies are interested in reducing costs, the amount
of resources allocated to training is likely to be determined by how much training and devel-
opment activities help the company reach business goals. Topics related to designing train-
ing programs are covered in Chapters 3 through 6. Chapter 3, Needs Assessment,
discusses how to identify when training is appropriate. Chapter 4, Learning: Theories and
Program Design, addresses the learning process and characteristics of a learning environ-
ment, and it provides practical suggestions for designing training to ensure that learning
occurs. Chapter 5, Transfer of Training, emphasizes what should be done in the design of
training and the work environment to ensure that training is used on the job. Chapter 6,
Training Evaluation, discusses how to evaluate training programs. Here the student is
introduced to the concepts of identifying cost-effective training; evaluating the return on
investment of training and learning; and determining if training outcomes related to learn-
ing, behavior, or performance have been reached. Chapters 7 and 8 cover training methods.
Chapter 7, Traditional Training Methods, discusses presentational methods (e.g., lecture),
hands-on methods (e.g., on-the-job training, behavior modeling), and group methods (e.g.,
adventure learning). Chapter 8, E-Learning and Use of Technology in Training, introduces
the student to new technologies that are increasingly being used in training. These technol-
ogy-based training methods include Web-based instruction, distance learning, e-learning,
iPods, simulations, virtual worlds, and blended learning. Chapters 7 and 8 both conclude by
comparing training methods on the basis of costs, benefits, and learning characteristics.
Chapter 9, Employee Development, introduces the student to developmental methods
(assessment, relationships, job experiences, and formal courses). Topics such as 360-degree
feedback and mentoring are discussed. Chapter 10, Special Issues in Training and Employee
Development, discusses cross-cultural training, diversity training, school-to-work programs,
and skill-based pay. Chapters 11 and 12 deal with careers and career management. Chapter 11,
Careers and Career Management, emphasizes the protean career and the career management
process. Chapter 12, Special Challenges in Career Management, deals with special issues
that trainers, employees, and managers face. These issues include skills obsolescence, plateau-
ing, career breaks, employee orientation and socialization, work-life balance, downsizing, out-
placement, and retirement. Last, Chapter 13, The Future of Training and Development,
looks at how training and development might be different 10 or 20 years from now.
Employee Training and Development is based on my more than 20 years of teaching
training and development courses to both graduate and undergraduate students. From
this experience, I have realized that managers, consultants, trainers, and faculty work-
ing in a variety of disciplines (including education, psychology, business, and indus-
trial relations) have contributed to the research and practice of training and
noe30344_fm_i-xviii.qxd 9/17/09 17:17 Page v
development. As a result, the book is based on research conducted in several disci-
plines while offering a practical perspective. The book is appropriate for students in a
number of programs. It suits both undergraduate and masters-level training courses in
a variety of disciplines.
This book has several distinctive features. First, my teaching experience has taught me that
students become frustrated if they do not see research and theory in practice. As a result, one
distinctive feature of the book is that each chapter begins with a vignette of a company prac-
tice that relates to the material covered in the chapter. Many examples of company practices
are provided throughout the chapters. Each chapter ends with a case and related questions
that give students the opportunity to apply the chapters content to an actual training or
A second distinctive feature of the book is its topical coverage. The chapters included
in Part 2 relate to training design (needs assessment, training methods, learning environ-
ment, transfer of training, and evaluation). Instructional design is still the meat and pota-
toes of training. Part 3 covers the more exciting part of training and development, that is,
training and development methods. But as the role of managers and trainers broadens,
they are increasingly involved in understanding career issues and career management. For
example, managers and trainers need to be concerned with understanding generational
differences in employees career needs, career paths, cross-cultural training, diversity,
outplacement, skills obsolescence, and succession planningtopics that fall outside the
realm of instructional design. These topics are covered in the chapters included in Part 4
of the book.
The book begins with a discussion of the context for training and development. Part 1
includes chapters that cover the economic and workplace factors that are influencing trends
in the training profession. In addition, these chapters discuss the need for training, develop-
ment, and learning to become strategic (i.e., to contribute to business strategy and organiza-
tional goals). Why? In successful, effective training, all aspects of trainingincluding
training objectives, methods, evaluation, and even who conducts the trainingrelate to the
business strategy. More and more companies are demanding that the training function and
training practices support business goals; otherwise training may be outsourced or face
funding cuts. Although students in business schools are exposed to strategic thinking, stu-
dents in psychology and education who go on to become trainers need to understand the
strategic perspective and how it relates to the organization of the training function and the type
of training conducted.
Not only has technology changed the way we live and the way work is performed, but
it also has influenced training practice. As a result, one chapter of the book is devoted
entirely to the use of new technologies for training delivery and instruction, such as online
learning, blended learning, iPods, virtual worlds, and personal data assistants (PDAs).
The book reflects the latest hot topics in the area of training. Some of the new topics
discussed in the book are corporate universities, outsourcing training, developing and
measuring human capital, learning management systems, competencies, knowledge man-
agement, e-learning, the use of mobile technology (such as iPods and PDAs) and virtual
worlds (such as Second Life) for training. Each chapter contains the most recent academic
research findings and company practices.
noe30344_fm_i-xviii.qxd 9/24/09 16:08 Page vi
Rev. Confirming Pages
FEATURES DESIGNED TO AID LEARNING
Employee Training and Development provides several features to aid learning:
1. Each chapter lists objectives that highlight what the student is expected to learn in that
2. In-text examples and chapter openers feature companies from all industries including
service, manufacturing, and retail, and nonprofit organizations.
3. Discussion questions at the end of each chapter help students learn the concepts pre-
sented in the chapter and understand potential applications of the material.
4. Important terms and concepts used in training and development are boldfaced in each
chapter. Key terms are identified at the end of each chapter. These key terms are impor-
tant to help the student understand the language of training.
5. Application assignments are useful for the students to put chapter content into practice.
Most chapters include assignments that require the student to use the World Wide Web.
6. Cases at the end of each chapter and part help students apply what they have learned to
training and development issues faced by actual companies.
7. Name and subject indexes at the end of the book help in finding key people and topics.
WHATS NEW IN THE FIFTH EDITION
I want to personally thank all of you who have adopted this book! Based on the comments
of the reviewers of the fourth edition and training research and practice, I have made sev-
eral improvements. Some important changes in the fifth edition of Employee Training and
Development stand out:
Each chapter has been updated to include the most recent research findings and new
best company practices. New examples have been added in each chapters text.
All the chapter opening vignettes are new. For example, the opening vignette for
Chapter 8, E-Learning and use of Technology in Training, highlights how Dunkin
Donuts is using a blended learning approach to help franchisees run a successful and
This edition offers new and expanded coverage of such topics as outsourcing training,
business-embedded training functions, knowledge management, blended learning,
learning management systems, intangible assets and human capital, implications of the
aging work force for training and development, new technologies in training, (including
virtual worlds such as Second Life), and how to design programs, courses and lessons.
Each chapter ends with application assignments, including new and updated Web-based
exercises. These assignments are also found on the books Web site.
Each chapter concludes with a brief case that illustrates a training, development, or
learning issue faced by a company. The case questions ask students to consider the issue
and make recommendations based on the chapter content.
To help students better understand the connections between topics, the book is now
organized into five different parts. Part 1 focuses on the context for training and devel-
opment and includes a chapter devoted to strategic training. Part 2 includes coverage
related to the fundamentals of designing training programs. Chapters in Part 2 focus on
noe30344_fm_i-xviii.qxd 9/24/09 16:08 Page vii
Rev. Confirming Pages
needs assessment, learning theories and program design, transfer of training, and train-
ing evaluation. Part 3 focuses on training and development methods and includes
chapters devoted to traditional training methods, e-learning and the use of technology
in training, employee development, and special issues in employee development, such
as managing diversity, succession planning, and cross-cultural preparation. Chapters in
Part 4 cover career issues and how companies manage careers as well as challenges in
career management, such as dealing with work-life conflict, retirement, and socializa-
tion. Finally, Part 5 provides a look at the future of training and development.
New to this edition, BusinessWeek cases at the end of each of the five parts of the
book look at training and development issues companies are facing and encourage
students to critically evaluate each problem and apply what they have learned in that
part of the text.
noe30344_fm_i-xviii.qxd 9/17/09 17:17 Page viii
The author is only one of many important persons involved in writing a textbook. The fifth
edition of this book would not have been possible without the energy and expertise of
several persons. Editor Laura Spell gave me free rein to write the training book I wanted to
write and provided helpful ideas and suggestions regarding how to improve the book.
Jolynn Kilburg, developmental editor, and Michelle Gardner, project manager, both
deserves kudos for ensuring that my ideas made sense and my writing was clear, concise
and easy to understand.
I take full responsibility for any errors, omissions, or misstatements of fact in this book.
However, regardless of your impression of the book, it would not have been this good had
it not been for the reviewers. Special thanks to the manuscript reviewers who provided me
with detailed comments that helped improve the fifth edition of the book for students
and instructors. These reviewers include
University of Texas Pan American
Columbia Southern University
Lakeland Community College
University of North Texas
University of WisconsinWhitewater
University of Mississippi
Raymond A. Noe
noe30344_fm_i-xviii.qxd 9/17/09 17:17 Page ix
About the Author
Raymond A. Noe The Ohio State University
Raymond A. Noe is the Robert and Anne Hoyt Designated Professor of Management at
The Ohio State University. He has taught for more than 20 years at Big Ten universities.
Before joining the faculty at Ohio State, he was a professor in the Department of Manage-
ment at Michigan State University and the Industrial Relations Center of the Carlson
School of Management, University of Minnesota. He received his B.S. in psychology from
The Ohio State University and his M.A. and Ph.D. in psychology from Michigan State
University. Professor Noe conducts research and teaches all levels of studentsfrom
undergraduates to executivesin human resource management, managerial skills, quanti-
tative methods, human resource information systems, training and development, and orga-
nizational behavior. He has published articles in the Academy of Management Journal,
Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Vocational
Behavior, and Personnel Psychology. Professor Noe is currently on the editorial boards of
several journals, including Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, and
Journal of Organizational Behavior. Besides Employee Training and Development, he has
co-authored two other textbooks: Fundamentals of Human Resource Management and
Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage, both published with
McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Professor Noe has received awards for his teaching and research
excellence, including the Herbert G. Heneman Distinguished Teaching Award in 1991, the
Ernest J. McCormick Award for Distinguished Early Career Contribution from the Society
for Industrial and Organizational Psychology in 1993, and the ASTD Outstanding
Research Article of the Year Award for 2001. He is also a fellow of the Society of Indus-
trial and Organizational Psychology.
noe30344_fm_i-xviii.qxd 9/17/09 17:17 Page x
The Context for Training and
1 Introduction to Employee Training and
2 Strategic Training 52
Designing Training 101
3 Needs Assessment 102
4 Learning: Theories and Program
5 Transfer of Training 185
6 Training Evaluation 215
Training and Development Methods 257
7 Traditional Training Methods 258
8 E-Learning and Use of Technology
in Training 294
9 Employee Development 345
10 Special Issues in Training and
Employee Development 389
Careers and Career Management 443
11 Careers and Career Management 444
12 Special Challenges in Career
The Future 521
13 The Future of Training and
NAME INDEX 561
SUBJECT INDEX 576
noe30344_fm_i-xviii.qxd 9/24/09 16:08 Page xi
Rev. Confirming Pages
THE CONTEXT FOR TRAINING
AND DEVELOPMENT 1
Introduction to Employee Training and
Forces Affecting the Workplace Make Training a
Key Ingredient for Company Success 2
What Is Training? 5
Designing Effective Training 7
The Forces Influencing Working and Learning 10
Economic Cycles 10
Increased Value Placed on Intangible Assets and
Human Capital 13
Focus on Link to Business Strategy 17
Changing Demographics and Diversity of the Work
Talent Management 21
Customer Service and Quality Emphasis 25
New Technology 29
High-Performance Models of Work Systems 31
Snapshot of Training Practices 34
Training Facts and Figures 34
Training Investment Leaders 36
Roles, Competencies, and Positions of Training
Who Provides Training? 40
Who Is in Charge of Training? 41
Preparing to Work in Training 42
Organization of This Book 43
Key Terms 44
Discussion Questions 44
Application Assignments 45
Case: Zappos: Facing Competitive Challenges 46
Strategic Training 52
McCormick & Company Uses Strategic Training to
Spice Up Business Results 52
The Evolution of Trainings Role 55
Movement from Training as an Event to Learning 57
The Strategic Training and Development Process 58
Identify the Companys Business Strategy 59
Identify Strategic Training and Development
Initiatives That Support the Strategy 62
Provide Training and Development Activities Linked to
Strategic Training and Development Initiatives 65
Identify and Collect Metrics to Show Training
Organizational Characteristics That Influence
Roles of Employees and Managers 68
Top Management Support 70
Integration of Business Units 71
Global Presence 71
Business Conditions 72
Other Human Resource Management Practices 73
Extent of Unionization 74
Staff Involvement in Training and Development 75
Training Needs in Different Strategies 76
Models of Organizing the Training Department 79
Faculty Model 80
Customer Model 81
Matrix Model 82
Corporate University Model (Corporate Training
Business-Embedded Model 86
Marketing the Training Function 89
Outsourcing Training 91
Key Terms 93
Discussion Questions 93
noe30344_fm_i-xviii.qxd 9/22/09 0:06 Page xii
Rev. Confirming Pages
Social Learning Theory 143
Goal Theories 145
Need Theories 146
Expectancy Theory 147
Adult Learning Theory 148
Information Processing Theory 149
The Learning Process 150
Mental and Physical Processes 150
The Learning Cycle 151
Age Influences on Learning 153
Implications of the Learning Process for
Instructional Emphasis for Learning Outcomes 164
Considerations in Designing Effective Training
Selecting and Preparing the Training Site 165
Choosing Trainers 167
How Trainers Can Make the Training Site and
Instruction Conducive to Learning 169
Program Design 172
Key Terms 178
Discussion Questions 179
Application Assignments 179
Case: Plastics Make Perfect 181
Transfer of Training 185
Transfer of Training and Knowledge Sharing Are
Important for Nonprofits 185
Training Design 188
Applications of Transfer of Training Theory 188
Encourage Trainee Responsibility and Self-
Work Environment Characteristics That Influence
Climate for Transfer 195
Manager Support 196
Peer Support 200
Opportunity to Use Learned Capabilities 200
Technological Support 201
Application Assignments 94
Case: Training and Development Help Rubber
Hit the Road at Tires Plus 95
Case 1 From the Pages of BusinessWeek:
It Takes a VillageAnd a Consultant 99
DESIGNING TRAINING 101
Needs Assessment 102
Needs Assessment at NetApp 102
Why Is Needs Assessment Necessary? 103
Who Should Participate in Needs Assessment? 105
Methods Used in Needs Assessment 107
The Needs Assessment Process 109
Organizational Analysis 110
Person Analysis 113
Task Analysis 123
Competency Models 127
Scope of Needs Assessment 131
Needs Assessment in Practice 131
Key Terms 133
Discussion Questions 133
Application Assignments 134
Case: Determining Training Needs at Union Pacific
Learning: Theories and Program
A Positive Learning Environment Energizes
What Is Learning? What Is Learned? 140
Learning Theories 141
Reinforcement Theory 141
noe30344_fm_i-xviii.qxd 9/29/09 19:49 Page xiii
Rev. Confirming Pages
Determining Benefits 242
Example of a Cost-Benefit Analysis 243
Other Methods for Cost-Benefit
Practical Considerations in Determining Return
on Investment 245
Measuring Human Capital and Training
Key Terms 249
Discussion Questions 249
Application Assignments 250
Case: Evaluating the Returns on Leadership
Development at BP 251
Case 2 From the Pages of BusinessWeek:
On-the-Job Video Gaming 255
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Traditional Training Methods 258
Training at LaQuinta Hotels Helps Delight
Presentation Methods 260
Audiovisual Techniques 262
Week Four Assignment Transactional Model of Stress and Coping
Week Four Assignment – Transactional Model of Stress and Coping
Top of Form
Describe the concepts of the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping applied to your health behavior. Make a plan to manage stress and garner social support. (3-5 pages)
In your own words, describe how stress affects health behavior in general.
Define and apply each of the concepts in the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping
(i.e., primary appraisal, secondary appraisal, coping efforts [problem management, emotional regulation, and meaning-based coping], outcomes of coping/adaptation, dispositional coping styles [optimism, benefit finding, information seeking].
Describe your level of confidence in your ability to change your behavior.
Apply the Transactional Theory of Stress and Coping to the COVID-19 Pandemic. Propose strategies to identify stakeholders and build coalitions and partnerships to garner support for public health measures and influence public health outcomes. Key stakeholders may include social service agencies, mental health agencies, recreation departments, etc.
Use APA format for the in-text referencing and the reference list. You should be using reputable sources such as Centers for Disease Control (and other .gov resources) as well as the textbook and peer-reviewed articles.
Bottom of Form Running head: TRANSACTIONAL MODEL 1
TRANSACTIONAL MODEL 4
Transactional Model of Stress and Coping: Increasing Water Intake
Transactional Model of Stress and Coping: Increasing Water Intake
Stress and how it affects health can differ from person to person. Some people can handle and cope with stress very easily, while others can become physically or emotionally ill (Glanz et al., 2015). It depends on how the person interprets the stressor, how the stressor unfolds, and whether it is short or long term (Glanz, et al., 2015). Some people may initially cope with the stress well initially, but if it continues they may eventually feel the negative physical, emotional, and social impacts of it. Conversely, others may not be able to cope with the initial onset of the stress, but then adapt to it if it continues. It is completely dependent on the person (Glanz, et al., 2015).
Transactional Model of Stress and Coping
According to Glanz, Rimer, and Viswanath (2015) the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping is a classic framework for evaluating processes of coping with stressful events (p. 226). The key constructs of this model are primary appraisal, secondary appraisal, coping efforts, outcomes of coping (adaptation), and dispositional coping styles (Glanz, et al., 2015). By using these constructs to help evaluate and cope with my stress triggers it allows me to continue forward in changing my health behavior.
Primary and Secondary Appraisals
There are a few stressors that affect my health behavior, but the one that causes the most stress and most disruption in my health behavior is when a deadline is coming up at work. The primary appraisal of this stressor includes how I evaluate how significant it is (Glanz et al., 2015). Depending on the project and deadline, my primary appraisal may be different. However, I am going to speak in particular about a deadline that I have coming up for an end of fiscal year project. My perception of this project (the stressor) is negative, and therefore results in distress (Glanz, et al., 2015). This distress often results in me meeting my friends more often for Happy Hour (aka more fatty appetizers), or to stress eating, which usually includes fast (fried) food.
The secondary appraisal of this stressor includes how I evaluate my level of control over the stressor, and if resources are available to me in order to deal with the stressor (Glanz, et al., 2015). When evaluating this stressor, I have a lot of control over the project itself, but not over my ability to change it or the deadline. Unfortunately, when I am feeling very overwhelmed by this project, I dont have the ability to cope with this. Everyone is also busy at work so it is hard to find support from my coworkers. I want to impress my boss, so I dont want to bother her with small details that might communicate that I do not know what I am doing. In addition, everyone in my family is busy and has their own stress. I need to be strong for them, and I do not want to bring home any of my stress from work. Because I lack resources to help me deal with this stressor, I often turn to food, particularly high fat foods.
Coping efforts are defined by Glanz et al., (2015) as, actual strategies used to mediate primary and secondary appraisals (p. 227). There are three coping efforts described by the model: 1) problem management; 2) emotional regulation; and, 3) meaning-based coping (Glanz, et al., 2015). In terms of coping efforts, I have turned to problem management often. This has included seeking out information that will help me on my project as well as actively coping at work through organizing a to-do list and working in 45 minute chunks with 15 minute breaks.
I have also turned to emotional regulation by venting my stress and emotion to my friends during Happy Hours after work. In addition, I have engaged in meaning-based coping by turning to my faith and focusing on a family vacation that my husband planned for this summer after my deadline.
Outcomes of Coping
Outcomes of coping, or adaptation, consists of things such as emotional well-being, health behaviors, and functional status (Glanz, et al., 2015). Because of the coping strategies I engage in such as problem management, emotional regulation, and meaning based coping have rmostly resulted in short-term positive adaptation to the stressor (Glanz, et al., 2015).
Dispositional Coping Styles
Dispositional coping styles are defined as, generalized ways of behaving that can affect emotional or functional reaction to a stressor: relatively stable across time and situations (Glanz, et al., 2015, p. 227). There are three coping styles: 1) optimism; 2) benefit finding; and, 3) information seeking (Glanz, et al., 2015). I tend to engage most in benefit finding, which is the identification of positive life changes that have resulted from major stressors (Glanz, et al., 2015, p. 227). I try really hard to look at things that are stressful, particularly this project at work, and find something positive in it. This keeps me motivated. For instance, during this project, I like to see it as a positive thing overall because the time at work moves quickly when I am busy, and when I am busy I am less likely to take longer breaks for lunch with my coworkers (eating fatty foods).
In conclusion, by applying the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping to my chosen behavior it becomes easier to recognize my stress triggers and adapt or eliminate them. Through using the constructs and coping methods I am more confident in my ability to overcome the stress related to my project, which contributes to my unhealthy (high saturated fat) eating patterns. I didnt realize the toll that stress takes on myself and my eating, and if I am able to better deal with my stress, changing my behavior can be easier.
Glanz, K. Rimer, B. K., & Viswanath, K. (2015). Health Behavior: Theory, Research, and Practice (5th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass [removed] Theory of Stress, Coping and Health Behavior
Subjective feeling produced by events that are uncontrollable or threatening
Stress is “the non-specific response of the body to any demand”. Hans Selye, MD
Eustress can be defined as a pleasant or curative stress. We can’t always avoid stress, in fact, sometimes we don’t want to. Often, it is controlled stress that gives us our competitive edge in performance related activities like athletics, giving a speech, or acting
Distress is an unpleasant or disease-producing stress. Chronic, sustained, uncontrolled stress of a negative type may lead to a compromised immune system, illness, and even death. As a result, we all should become more aware of common or persistent distressors in our lives and initiate methods for managing them.
Demands made by the internal or external environment that upset the individuals homeostasis, thus affecting their physical and psychological well-being and requiring action to restore that balance or equilibrium
Stressors events that cause stress
Major life events good and bad!
Described fight-or-flight reaction
Fight-or-Flight Response and how it is different with regards to anxiety disorders.
This is my attempt to explain the difference between normal people (God, I really hate having to use that term) and those who suffer from anxiety and panic disorders. I am a member of the latter group.
The Fight-or-Flight Response is a biological and psychological change that occurs in the body when a danger is perceived.
In anxiety and panic disorders, the brain is acting as if there is a threat or danger even if there is not, in reality, one present at all. The following should explain why we sufferers cannot just snap out of it and remain in our excited, agitated and nervous state.
Let’s start by taking an example. If you are hiking through the woods and suddenly come upon a wolf, your body and mind stop for a split second and the body begins pumping chemicals through your system and preps your body for the decision that is being made in that split-second, do you fight the wolf or run like a bat out of hell? This split-second decision is usually made while our bodies are “paralized by fear”, or standing perfectly still, another instinctive reaction left over from years of evolution. Your brain becomes highly alert, and your heart starts pumping furiously and your breathing changes.
The following list of what happens physiologically is taken from the book
Principals of Anatomy and Physiology, by Tortura and Grabowski, eighth edition.
Stress excites the sympathetic nervous system, the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal cortex. This produces the following effects:
The pupils of the eyes dilate.
Heart rate and force of contraction and blood pressure increase.
The blood vessels of nonessential organs such as the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract constrict.
Blood vessels of organs involved in exercise or fighting off danger skeletal muscles, cardiac muscle, liver, and adipose tissue dilate to allow faster flow of blood. (The liver splits glycogen to glucose and adipose tissue splits triglycerides to fatty acids, both of which are used by muscle fiber to generate ATP.)
The rate and depth of breathing increase and the airways dilate, which allow faster movement of air in and out of the lungs.
Blood glucose level rises as liver glycogen is converted to glucose.
The medullae of the adrenal glands are stimulated to release epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). These hormones intensify and prolong the sympathetic effects just described.
Processes that are not essential for meeting the stress situation are inhibited. For example, muscular movements of the gastrointestinal tract and digestive secretions slow down or even stop.
In today’s society, in which we aren’t threatened by wild beasts very often, most people will have a fight or flight response to things like taking a test.
To paraphrase from the book, if the stress remains for a long period of time, the excitation becomes more prominent and if it remains for weeks or months it can weaken the immune system. In this state, there may be a reduction of the levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine (also called adrenaline and noradrenaline) in the brain, which are two neurotransmitters that many medications given to people with anxiety and panic disorders try to alter.
The following image is taken from an article from Discover Magazine that was published on their website at
Basically what this means is that your brain is changing the way it communicates with itself to deal with a perceived threat. Sufferers from an anxiety or panic disorder may have their brain stuck in this on position.
I’m going to add a few quotes from a great book by Dr.Robert M. Sapolsky called
Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers. This book focuses on the stress response and chronic stress, which is basically what the Fight-Or-Flight response or an Anxiety disorder is.
During stress, sexual drive decreases in both sexes; females are less likely toovulate or carry pregnancies to term, while males begin to have trouble with erections and secrete less testosterone. This explains why people with anxiety disorders have difficult sex lives.
During the Fight-Or-Flight response, less saliva is produced, which helps explain why people with anxiety disorders suffer from dry mouth and dental problems.
…the longer the stressor lasts, the longer the cumulative time of exposure to CRF, causing inhibition of appetite. CRF is Corticotropin Releasing Factor, a hormone secreted by the hypothalamus in the brain. This explains the poor eating habits of people with anxiety disorders, and why I often eat only one meal a day.
Another, ah, interesting facet of prolonged periods of the Fight-Or-Flight response is diarrhea and other bowel disorders.
But why, to add insult to injury, is it so frequently diarrhea when you are truly frightened? Relatively large amounts of water are needed for digestion, to keep your food in solution as you break it down so that it will be easy to absorb into the circulation when digestion is done. The job of the large intestine is to get that water back, and that’s why your bowels have to be so long-the leftovers slowly inch their way through the large intestine, starting as a soupy gruel and ending up, ideally, as reasonably dry stool. Disaster strikes, run for your life, increase that large intestinal motility, and everything gets pushed thorugh too fast for the water to be absorbed optimally. Diarrhea, simple as that.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a hodgepodge of disorders in which there is abdominal pain (particularly just after a meal) that is relieved by defecating and which, at least 25 percent of the time, includes symptoms such as diarrhea or constipation, passage of mucus, bloating and abdominal distention.
All this helps to explain why people such as me are sick most of the time – our bodies are stuck trying to fight off physical or more often psychological stressors that the body simply doesn’t have the time or resources to combat diseases or digest food and get the proper nutrients to build new cells.
I have to learn to live with the fight-or-flight response on a daily, on-going basis. Medications that alter brain chemistry (usually) help greatly manage this bodily response. Other ways I use to calm myself are to calmly tell myself there is no danger, I am safe and surrounded by safe people. Also, forcing myself to breath long, slow, deep breaths help. But the bottom line is there is a chemical imbalance that is stuck in the on position and all of the above methods are needed in order to just make it through the day without running away in fear or fighting in anger.
I hope this helps you all understand what goes on behind both an acute panic attack and general anxiety disorders.
Stress and Gender
Perception of events as being stressful tends to differ between the gender
Emotional response to stress may also differ
Coping strategies have been observed as different
Are the difference due to nature or nurture?
Differences more of a qualitative issue than being totally different
The model, called “tend-and-befriend” by its developers, won’t replace fight-or-flight. Rather, it adds another dimension to the stress-response arsenal, says University of California, Los Angeles, psychologist Shelley Taylor, PhD, who, along with five colleagues, developed the model.
females respond to stressful situations
In particular, they propose that females respond to stressful situations by protecting themselves and their young through nurturing behaviors–the “tend” part of the model–and forming alliances with a larger social group, particularly among women–the “befriend” part of the model. Males, in contrast, show less of a tendency toward tending and befriending, sticking more to the fight-or-flight response, they suggest.
Evolutionary explanation- men need to fight the lion, women need to throw themselves on top of their baby to save it.
huge gap in the stress response literature
The tend-and-befriend model fills what Taylor sees as a huge gap in the stress response literature: namely, that almost all the studies have been conducted in males and so, therefore, upheld fight-or-flight as the main response to stress.
the way females respond to stress
The tend-and-befriend response, in contrast, fits better the way females respond to stress. It builds on the brain’s attachment/caregiving system, which counteracts the metabolic activity associated with the traditional fight-or-flight stress response–increased heart rate, blood pressure and cortisol levels–and leads to nurturing and affiliative behavior.
fight-or-flight less likely in females.
From research into the neuroendocrine responses responsible for fight-or-flight, for example, they document that, although women do show the same immediate hormonal and sympathetic nervous system response to acute stress, other factors intervene to make fight-or-flight less likely in females.
female aggression appears to be more cerebral in nature
In terms of the fight response, while male aggression appears to be regulated by androgen hormones, such as testosterone, and linked to sympathetic reactivity and hostility, female aggression isn’t. Instead, female aggression appears to be more cerebral in nature–moderated by social circumstances, learning, culture and the situation–and in animals “confined to situations requiring defense,” write the researchers.
Men- more nature
the hormone oxytocin
In terms of flight, fleeing too readily at any sign of danger would put a female’s offspring at risk, a response that might reduce her reproductive success in evolutionary terms. Consistent with this idea, studies in rats suggest there may be a physiological response to stress that inhibits flight. This response is the release of the hormone oxytocin, which enhances relaxation, reduces fearfulness and decreases the stress responses typical to the fight-or-flight response.
important behaviors like affiliation
Adds Taylor: Mainstream stress researchers “have been very quick to study behaviors like aggression and withdrawal and have failed to notice very important behaviors like affiliation. We think it’s cute when women call up their sisters when they’re under stress. But no one has realized that that is a contemporaneous manifestation of one of the oldest biological systems. Our focus on fight-or-flight has kept us from recognizing that there are systems that are as old as fight-or-flight that are tremendously important.”
This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under
Experimental approach to question: Is stress related to susceptibility to illness?
Cohen, Tyrrell & Smith (1997)
Obtained reports of stressful
life events according
to Holmes & Rahes criteria
Received nose drops with or without cold virus
Participants w/more stress got more colds!
Transactional Theory of Stress and Coping
In this model, stressful experiences are construed as person-environment transactions wherein the impact of an external stressor, or demand, is mediated by the persons appraisal of the stressor and the psychological, social, and cultural resources at his disposal
Relevant to you?
Relevant but not threatening
Stressful…relevant AND threatening
The evaluation of personal resources to cope with the threat…
Can I deal…?
When faced with a stressor, a person evaluates the potential harm or threat (primary appraisal), as well as his ability to alter the situation and manage negative emotional reactions (secondary appraisal)
Tiger or kitty?
characterized by the conscious regulation of emotion in which people seek to change the way they feel or perceive the problem
attempts to change the stressful problem or source of the stress
some people tend to awfulize everything
The words we use to giving meaning to our stressors can affect our appraisals
This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under
Actual coping efforts, aimed at
problem management (strategies directed at changing a stressful situation)
emotional regulation (strategies aimed at changing the way one thinks or feels about a stressful situation)
give rise to the outcomes of the coping process (adaptation) (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984)
Primary appraisal is a persons judgment about the significance of an event as stressful, positive, controllable, challenging, benign, or irrelevant
Two basic primary appraisals are perceptions of susceptibility to the threat and perceptions of the severity of the threat
Observe the similarities with the Health Belief model
My boyfriend or girlfriend left me. Its over. No, I am better off without him
The condom broke
Appraisal of personal risk and threat severity prompt efforts to cope (problem focused, emotion focused) with the stressor
However, heightened perceptions of risk can also generate distress. Appraisals of high threat can also prompt escape/avoidance behaviors
Primary appraisals can also serve to minimize the significance of the threat, particularly when the health threat is ambiguous or uncertain
Other primary appraisals involve motivational relevance and causal focus of the stressor
The condom broke, am I going to get pregnant? Am I going to get an STI?
Whose fault is it?
When a stressor is appraised as having a major impact on a persons goals or concerns, that person is likely to experience anxiety
Perceiving oneself as responsible for the stressor can generate guilt and depression
If I am pregnant, my life will be ruined. I wont be able to finish school.
It is my fault I should have been using something beside the condom. I am such an idiot.
Secondary appraisal is an assessment of the persons coping resources and options; it addresses what one can do about the situation
Key examples are the perceived ability to change the situation, perceived ability to manage ones emotional reactions to the threat, and expectations about the effectiveness of ones coping resources
I can handle the emotional pain of the break up.
The morning after pill.
It is not the end of the world
Perceived control may improve physical well-being by increasing the possibility that the person will adopt recommended health behaviors
However, beliefs about personal control are likely to be adaptive only to the extent that they fit with reality
Self-efficacy is specific for a given behavior
I will use contraception that is effective.
Only God can determine if I get pregnant of not,or if I get and STI.
I know I am good about taking a pill everyday.
I cant lose weight
problem management strategies are directed at changing the situation; more adaptive when the stressor is changeable
emotion focused efforts aim to change the way one thinks or feels about it; more adaptive when the stressor is not changeable
The serenity prayer
Most Adaptive to
that are changeable
Directed at changing
the way one thinks
or feels about a
**Generally considered maladaptive
My father does not want to think about death or dying, or illness. Let the doctor handle it.
My sister wants to know every single detail
Other coping responses to health threats
Religion and spirituality
The extent to which specific coping strategies result in desirable or undesirable outcomes may depend on whether short- or long-term goals are considered to be more important
Coping flexibility has been found to be important in health promotion
What is more important? Having that dress or buying a house?
Coping outcomes represent individuals adaptations to the stressors, following from their appraisal of the situation and resources, and influenced by coping efforts
The main categories of outcomes are emotional well-being, functional status, and health behaviors
in contrast to coping efforts, coping styles are conceptualized as dispositional or stable characteristics of the individual
the former are situation-specific, while the latter are generalized
coping efforts can be considered mediators of the effects of stress and appraisals on emotional and functional outcomes
coping styles are enduring traits believed to drive appraisal and coping efforts
individual differences in coping styles can be considered moderators of the impact of stress on coping processes and outcomes
Long lasting traits
the most widely researched coping style is dispositional optimism – the tendency to have positive generalized expectations for outcomes. Appears to exert effects on each of the key processes of the model
Seligman, a well-known researcher in the area of optimism, summarizes the essence of optimism:
Changing the destructive things you say to yourself when you experience the setbacks that life deals us is the central skill of optimism. (Seligman, 1991, p.15)
You will notice that being optimistic is not just being positive during the good times, but also being able to maintain positive thoughts about ourselves, even during lifes setbacks.
Health Benefits of Optimism
better health habits
better immune functioning and fewer illnesses
less severe illnesses
fewer symptoms of poor health
faster recovery from illness and injury
better adjustment to serious illness
decreased psychological illness and distress
a tendency to live longer
Buffers Against Stress
– Internal Locus
Coping with Stress
a personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress-related illness
a mutual network of caring, interested others
Buffering hypothesis: protects individuals against the adverse effects of stress.
Direct effects hypothesis: provides individuals with a general resistance to stress.
Explanation of the relationship between social support and stress
Coping Styles –
monitoring (seeking relevant information)
vs. blunting (avoiding such information)
Diabetics example. Agism
Locus of Control
a generalized belief about ones ability to control events by virtue of ones own efforts. Internal LOC: initiate change on their own; external LOC: more likely to be influenced by others. Considered to be a generalized belief rather than situation-specific
Locus of Control Scale
Internal HLC (IHLC) is the extent to which one believes that internal factors
are responsible for health/illness.
Powerful Others HLC (PHLC) is the belief that one’s health is determined by
Chance HLC (CHLC) measures the extent to which one believes that health
illness is a matter of fate. luck or chance.
Handout Locus of Control Scales
has both direct effects and stress-buffering effects on well-being. The stress-buffering hypothesis predicts that SS will strengthen in its positive effects on adjustment and physical well-being as a stressor becomes more intense or persistent
the direct effects of SS have been observed primarily in studies assessing the extent of SS networks
Social support theory
SS affects both primary (the availability of friends to talk to) and secondary (bolster beliefs about ones ability to cope) appraisal
SS can serve as a mechanism for downward comparison
Stress Management Interventions
cognitive-behavioral strategies (information seeking, direct action, inhibition of action, intrapsychic processes, turning to others for support)
Antonovsky, A. (1979). Health, stress, and coping. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Cannon, W. B. (1932). The wisdom of the body. New York: Norton.
Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., . . . Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245-258.
Folkman, S., Lazarus, R., Dunkel-Schetter, C., DeLongis, Al, & Gruen, R. (1986). Dynamics of a stressful encounter: Cognitive appraisal, coping, and encounter outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 992-1003.
Holmes, T. H., & Rahe, R. H. (1967). The Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 213-218.
Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
Pearlin, L. I., & Schooler, C. (1978). The structure of coping. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 19(1), 2-21.
Selye, H. (1956). The stress of life. New York: McGraw-Hill.