C see attachment W 4 Project Part 4


Direct Care Project Part 4

Evaluating the Project

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Directions: Use this template to evaluate your project. For more information on the template sections, see the Directions for Part 4 and the Direct Care Part 4 Tutorial.

1. Title of presentation _______________________________________

2. Date presentation completed ________________________________

3. Tables of results
a. Tally the results of your surveys and place the numerical values in the boxes below.


Strongly Agree


Neither AgreenorDisagree


Strongly Disagree








Strongly Agree


Neither AgreenorDisagree


Strongly Disagree






4. Interpretation of results

a. Summarize data from the tables

b. Include any positive or negative changes

5. Reflection

a. Overall experience

b. Summary of outcomes from the pre and post surveys

c. Gaps in project (Examples: What else would have been helpful? More data? Better resources? Other gaps?)

d. Barriers to the project (Examples: Participant interest? Time? Limited resources? Willingness for change? Other barriers?)

6. Implications for future practice

a. How could this project impact your professional practice?

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image1.png Benefits of Certified Nurse Oncology Certification

Oscar L Perez Torres
Traci Moxley
September 23 ,2022

CONFIDENTIAL 2020 Chamberlain University LLC. All rights reserved.

Description of OCN Certification
The public may rest easy knowing that a certified oncology nurse has the necessary training, experience, and understanding to provide care for patients with cancer.
Adult oncology RNs may get certified via the Oncology Nursing Society.
Whether in the role of a nurse practitioner, nurse administrator, educator, researcher, or consultant, OCN is useful.

[Menonna-Quinn, 2022

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Even though having an RN license shows that you have the fundamental abilities necessary to begin working in the industry, it doesn’t necessarily show your commitment to furthering your education or impressing your future employers or patients. The Oncology Certified Nurse credential is known as the OCN credential. Having this credential means that a nurse is competent in caring for cancer patients, from providing them with emotional support and information to aiding in their treatment and keeping track of their medical data (Menonna-Quinn, 2022).

Process to obtain OCN Certification;
Collect the data and proof you need.
Make an application for the examination.
Cover the cost of the examination.
Participate in the examination.
Get the official certificate.

[Menonna-Quinn, 2022]

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A Bachelor of Science in Nursing is required at a bare minimum for certification in oncology nursing. You’ll need at least a year of nursing experience and 1,000 hours of clinical oncology experience after earning your RN license.

Application and Testing Cost;
There are 165 multiple-choice questions and the exam lasts for three hours.
Costs between $225 and $296 for ON/APHON subscribers.
Price ranges from $315 to $416 for those who are not members.

[Menonna-Quinn, 2022]

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A non-member may pay $416 to take the OCN certification test in its entirety. Exams typically cost $350, but if you’re an ONS/APHON member, you’ll just have to pay $296. The exam fee is $225, while ONS/APHON members 65 and above pay just $175. It costs $315 if you’re not a member and you’re 65 or older for the test. Further savings may be available at certain times and dates; see the ONCC website for details (Menonna-Quinn, 2022).

Requirements Prior to Certification;
Candidates must have a valid RN license in either the US or Canada.
No more than five of the ten contact hours allowed for medical school.
Minimum of two years’ experience in the nursing profession.
Certification requires 2,000 hours of adult oncology experience during the last four years.
Required: Oncology-specific CME of at least ten (10) contact hours.

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A minimum of two years’ experience in the nursing field and two thousand hours of cancer nursing experience during the previous four years are necessary (Menonna-Quinn, 2022). It’s possible for nurses to work in administration, clinical practice, teaching, research, or consultancy. In addition, during the last three years before applying, the nurse must have completed at least 10 contact hours of cancer-specific continuing education or an academic elective in oncology nursing (Menonna-Quinn, 2022).

OCN Test Description and Renewal Time and Process
It will take you three hours to finish the test.
There are 165 multiple-choice questions in the test.
The final score is based on your performance on 145 out of a possible 165 questions.
Expect a minimum of 620 to pass.
Renewal time and process
After every four years, certificants must retake and pass the OCN exam again.
Turning in your points is the first thing you need to do when renewing.
Send in your renewal application as the second step.

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Both questions and incomplete statements with four possible responses are included; many facets of oncology nursing are tested (Menonna-Quinn, 2022). Obtaining a new OCN is necessary once the current one expires. It takes between 8 and 12 weeks for the application and points to be reviewed throughout the certificate renewal procedure. Online form filling and point submission are both part of the renewal application procedure (Menonna-Quinn, 2022). In order to renew, one may either earn practice hours and professional development points, earn practice hours and points, or earn both practice hours and professional development points (Menonna-Quinn, 2022).

Required Items for Renewal
One such option involves doing both practice hours and continuing education.
Time spent studying and passing a second attempt (choice 2).
Continued education and passing scores on retakes are examples of ways to improve one’s career prospects.
Maintain a valid, unencumbered RN license in good standing at all times.
[Menonna-Quinn, 2022

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There are two parts to the application for certification renewal.
Submit your LearningBuilder points AND submit a renewal application by going to “My Account” and then “Renew my Certification.”

You may find out how many points you need to renew and in what categories by looking at your test results report the first time you renew your certification after completing a test. The evaluation will be taken shortly following each Option 1 (points) renewal. You may find out how many points you need for your next renewal in the report detailing your evaluation findings. If at all possible, take the test in the first year of your certification cycle. Doing so will provide you the longest possible window in which to rack up points. If you need to renew your membership, you have until January 31 to take the exam.

Problem Description
Problem Statement: Knowledge deficit r/t OCN certification among hospice nurses of the oncology floor in a hospital setting as manifested by severe pain of terminally ill patients.
When compared to other oncology certificates, CANO/ACIO stands out as one whose exclusive focus is improving the quality of oncology nursing care.
By focusing on four key areaspractice, education, research, and leadershipit promotes the overall growth of nurses as individuals and professionals.
Being primarily a Canadian accreditation, CANO/ACIO has little traction in the United States.
It follows that RNs in the US are less likely to be familiar with CANO/ACIO than RNs in other countries.

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For this reason, the certification was chosen: the information and training it provides may make a protracted hospital stay for terminally ill patients much more bearable. The certification is important for nurses to be aware of so that they may improve their skills in cancer nursing and better serve patients in their last stages of life.

Scholarly Article Key Points
There are several obstacles plaguing the current American health care system.
Health care providers must work together to share knowledge, streamline operations, and make the most of limited resources.
The two most novel approaches to addressing these issues, strengthening the nurse as a leader and elevating the profession via certification, are essential.
There has been a recent trend toward the development of clinical nurse leaders (CNLs) among those working in intensive care units.
Moreover, for better patient outcomes, national and regional nursing leadership and certification are critically required.

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This article’s researchers look at how oncology nurse certification (OCN) affects nurses’ pain awareness and management skills, as well as the outcomes for their patients. Certified nurses have more knowledge than their non-certified peers, according to Kim & Lee (2020), but this information has little bearing on patient outcomes since certified nurses don’t put it into practice. It should be noted that the authors do acknowledge certain caveats to the research that may impact the reliability of the findings.

Scholarly Article Connection
A lot of weight should be given to the trained nurses’ expertise in determining the final results for patients.
A greater effort is required from nurses.
Improving healthcare is possible via the use of knowledge.

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In order to alleviate their suffering, terminally sick cancer patients often seek the help of nurses who are well-versed in pain management. In spite of the fact that Kim & Lee (2020) discovered that the certified nurses’ elevated levels of knowledge had no effect on patient outcomes, the findings demonstrated the need of nurses taking more effort. Thus, a qualified nurse’s approach to applying information appropriately helps alleviate suffering for terminally ill patients in hospitals. As a result of their accreditation, clinical nurse leaders may demonstrate their outstanding leadership abilities and impact on patient outcomes. At the point of care, they are able to make necessary adjustments and enhance processes. CNLs have a direct effect on the quality and safety of care provided to seriously sick patients because of the leadership they provide (Kim & Lee, 2020).

Scholarly Article Connection Contd
In order to pass the test, you need some real world experience.
Skills necessary for taking charge and making sound choices.
Opportunity to teach and provide guidance.

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There is a minimum threshold of experience needed to sit for a certification exam in the nursing field, and this helps ensure that those who pass are well-prepared to provide quality care. In addition, you’ll need to hone your leadership and decision-making skills to do well on the exam. As a result, nurses who have earned their oncology nursing certification may assume leadership roles and educate their peers (Kim & Lee, 2020).

Oncology nursing certification has been the topic of this lecture.
The steps necessary to get the OCN accreditation have also been spelled out.
The cost of certification is also specified, starting at $225 in the United States and Canada. Senior citizens who are ONS or APHON members.
This paper presents a problem statement describing a gap in knowledge about effective cancer pain management options among oncology nurses.
This presentation is essentially a synopsis of a research paper.
The article’s core argument is that nurse certification and expanding the nurse leadership position are the two most promising new approaches to improving the U.S’ healthcare system.

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A certified oncology nurse (OCN) has the knowledge and skills to aid in cancer treatment and provide expert hospice care to those towards the end of their lives. Palliative care nurses’ lack of expertise causes unnecessary suffering for terminally sick cancer patients. Using statistical surveys, the article evaluates how trained nurses stack up against their non-certified counterparts in terms of knowledge and ability. The increased expertise of trained nurses has not translated into improved patient outcomes.

Conclusion contd
Reasons learnt include;
RNs should prioritize obtaining their certification.
Certification in oncology is a mark of competence, expertise, and professionalism for registered nurses.
Leadership qualities are important for RNs.
Effective leadership and professional recognition are two ways RNs might improve health outcomes for their patients.

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This presentation concludes that trained nurses’ degree of knowledge has little effect on patient outcomes because of the need of additional effort on their part. Certified nurses, however, may help train their less experienced colleagues by sharing their knowledge and expertise. Nurses should seek out education that will improve their ability to do research and teach others, since this will ultimately lead to a more highly qualified nursing workforce and better patient outcomes. The excellent quality of care provided to terminally ill patients may be improved by increasing the number of chances for certified nurses to get practical experience.


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Kim, M., & Lee, Y. M. (2020). Effect of knowledge and attitudes of cancer pain management and patient-centered care on performance of cancer pain management among nurses at an Oncology Unit. Korean Journal of Adult Nursing, 32(1), 57. https://doi.org/10.7475/kjan.2020.32.1.57
Menonna-Quinn, D. (2022). Oncology certified nurse review. Springer Publishing Company.

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Directions: Prior to completing this template, carefully review Week 2: Direct Care Part 1 directions and all rubric requirements.

Assessment of Certification, Patient Outcomes, and Leadership

1. State the clinical certification and target population that were approved by your instructor in the Week 2: Direct Care Part 1 Assessment and Diagnosis Check-In.
a. Clinical certification
My clinical qualification is Oncology Certified Nursing (OCN), which was accepted by my professor.
b. Target population including setting
Oncology treatment facilities are the location, and the intended audience is registered nurses caring for patients with cancer.

2. Discuss why this clinical certification was selected in relationship to the selected setting.
In cancer treatment facilities, patients often need specialist care. By specializing in the care of cancer patients, nurses who have earned the Oncology Certified Nursing credential have the knowledge and skills necessary to offer patients with the most effective treatments and support. Caring for terminally ill patients in a stable condition requires oncology nurses to experience a wide range of feelings every day. Care plans for patients with cancer benefit greatly from the input of other medical specialties. Patient care is improved at oncology treatment facilities where nurses have undergone specialized training and earned the Oncology Certified Nursing credential.
3. Describe the criteria for selected clinical certification
a. The process to obtain clinical certification.
Achieving OCN accreditation requires passing five tests. The first thing to do is use the Oncology Nursing Certification Corporation’s online calculator to see whether you have enough experience to take the exam. After determining whether or not the person has the necessary expertise, the Certification Registration Manual is printed. In this section, he or she may verify that he or she will be tested on the appropriate topics by reviewing the Test Content Outline. Taking a practice exam to become used to the format of the actual exam is the third stage. After that, you’ll need to study, collect your Continuing Education (CE) information, and apply for your OCN certification. In order to take the exam, those who qualify are given a document called an Authorization to Test (ATT), which includes a deadline of 90 days.
b. Cost of application and testing

To take the OCN certification test as a non-member would set you back $416. As an APHON/ONS member, you may take the OCN test for just $296. Those 65 and above pay $225 if they are members, or $315 if they are not.
c. Requirements before certification

Typically, a BSN or an ASN is required for entry-level nursing positions.
The equivalent of at least two thousand hours of study in the field of oncology Expertise as an oncology nurse with adult patients is required.
Be a registered nurse with at least two years’ experience within the last four years.
Attendance at ten oncology-related programs during the last three years is required.

d. Examination description
There are 165 multiple-choice questions on the exam, and they are all based on the six categories included in the OCN Test Content Outline. Every section of the exam will get a certain proportion of your total three hours.
e. Renewal time and process

8-12 weeks is the time required for the renewal process. Points are submitted in LearningBuilder as part of a two-stage certification application procedure. Next, pick “My Account” and then “Renew my certification” to submit your renewal application. A certification’s validity lasts for four years from the day it was earned.
f. Required items for renewal

Modern OCN accreditation.
Possession of a valid and unrestricted RN license valid for practice in the 50 United Statesor Canada.
An R.N. degree and at least a year of relevant work experience within the last three years are prerequisites.
Over the last 2.5 years, you’ve worked as an oncology nurse for at least 1000 hours with adults.

4. Provide APA reference for one peer-reviewed scholarly professional nursing journal article connecting patient outcomes, clinical certification, and leadership skills. See reference criteria under directions and include Permalink.

Gillet, N., Fouquereau, E., Coillot, H., Bonnetain, F., Dupont, S., Moret, L., Anota, A., & Colombat, P. (2018). Ethical leadership, professional caregivers’ well-being, and patients’ perceptions of quality of care in oncology.
European Journal of Oncology Nursing,
33, 17.


5. Summary of article (one to two paragraphs)
The purpose of this paper was to explore the connection between employee satisfaction on the job and patients’ evaluations of the quality of treatment they received. The authors dug further into the link between ethical leadership and the subjective experience of care for patients. Gillet et al. (2018) state that leaders in the nursing profession advocate for their patients, take initiative, and think critically across all practice contexts, roles, and domains. Therefore, effective nursing leadership is crucial to the success of patients, healthcare systems, and individual practitioners. In this essay, the author argues that leaders should see nursing as a series of decisions and interventions with the potential to improve patients’ lives. With this in mind, nurses are encouraged to see their profession as a permanent call to social justice activism. This calls for a shift in nursing practice away from a singular emphasis on people and toward a more population-centric approach to care.

6. How could
patient outcomes in the selected setting be improved by certified nurses?

By using their leadership skills within professional nursing organizations, both individually and collectively, certified nurses may influence politicians to enhance the quality of care provided to cancer patients at oncology treatment facilities. Nursing professionals have a unique opportunity to impact community and individual health outcomes by advocating for the inclusion of socioeconomic determinants of health in the work of policymakers like research funding agencies, health ministries, and national cancer control organizations.

7. How can clinical certification impact
leadership skills in the selected setting?

Leaders in the nursing field of cancer care might benefit from the knowledge and experience gained via the Oncology Certified Nursing program. This accreditation encourages cancer treatment center nurse leaders to act as catalysts for change, knowledge creation, and patient advocacy. moreover, they aid patients and their loved ones in navigating the healthcare system, which may be especially confusing while dealing with cancer since there are so many different options available.

Problem Diagnosis Statement

Write a diagnosis based on the problem of a knowledge deficit of certifications. Fill in the blanks below.

Example: Knowledge deficit r/t CNOR certification among operating room nurses (target population and setting) as manifested by wrong site surgeries (patient outcomes)

Less-than-ideal care for cancer patients is a symptom of the widespread lack of Oncology Certified Nursing accreditation among the registered nurses who work in oncology treatment clinics (patient outcomes).


image2.png Week 6 Assignment: Direct CareProjectPart 4: Evaluating the Project (Graded)

Directions for Part 4
1. View the

Direct Care Project Part 4 Tutorial
( https://lms.courselearn.net/lms/video/player.html?video=1_q1hr8hw2 )

2. Download the
Direct Care Part 4: Evaluating the Project templatebelow.

3. Gather the information from the surveys and attendance form.
4. Complete the template with the following:
a. Attendance form data
i. Include names, titles, and organization
b. Tables of results
i. PRE-Survey and POST-Survey results in numerical form
c. Interpretation of results
i. Summarize data in the tables
ii. Include any positive or negative changes
d. Reflection
i. Overall experience
ii. Summary of outcomes from the pre and post surveys
iii. Gaps in project (Examples: What else would have been helpful? More data? Better resources?)
iv. Barriers to the project (Examples: participant interest, time, limited resources, willingness for change)
e. Implications for future practice
i. How could this project impact your professional practice?
5. Submit the Direct Care Part 4: Evaluating the Project template
and the attendance form. The attendance form will be a separate submission in the grades area.

Please note, your assignment will not be graded until the attendance form is submitted.

Click on the link below to download your template.

Direct Care Part 4: Evaluating the Project Template (Was add as an attachment )



For this week’s discussion, you are to conduct a SWOT analysis of the company/brand you are working on in your course project. Each pillar of the SWOT should have minimum 3 factors (3 strengths, 3 weaknesses, 3 threats, and 3 opportunities).
Post your SWOT analysis to the discussion board. Provide a brief 2 sentence overview of how you determined each of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for your SWOT.

Reply to your peers as well to give them feedback on their SWOT analysis that may help them further in their strategic project.


Hanlon_Digital Marketing_AW.indd 4 12/10/2018 12:55

Sara Miller McCune founded SAGE Publishing in 1965 to support
the dissemination of usable knowledge and educate a global
community. SAGE publishes more than 1000 journals and over
800 new books each year, spanning a wide range of subject areas.
Our growing selection of library products includes archives, data,
case studies and video. SAGE remains majority owned by our
founder and after her lifetime will become owned by a charitable
trust that secures the companys continued independence.

Los Angeles | London | New Delhi | Singapore | Washington DC | Melbourne

Annmarie Hanlon


Hanlon_Digital Marketing_AW.indd 5 12/10/2018 12:55

SAGE Publications Ltd
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SAGE Publications Inc.
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Editor: Matthew Waters
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Marketing manager: Alison Borg
Cover design: Francis Kenney
Typeset by: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed in the UK

Annmarie Hanlon 2019

First published 2019

Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private
study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright,
Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced,
stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior
permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic
reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by
the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction
outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.

Library of Congress Control Number: 2018966917

British Library Cataloguing in Publication data

A catalogue record for this book is available from
the British Library

ISBN 978-1-5264-2666-6
ISBN 978-1-5264-2667-3 (pbk)

At SAGE we take sustainability seriously. Most of our products are printed in the UK using responsibly sourced papers and
boards. When we print overseas we ensure sustainable papers are used as measured by the PREPS grading system. We
undertake an annual audit to monitor our sustainability.

This book is dedicated to Nick, who positively makes all things possible.

To my parents, who were there at the start but left before the ink was dry, Ar dheis
D go raibh a n-anam.

List of Figures viii

List of Tables xi

About the Author xiii

Acknowledgements xiv

Preface xv

Online Resources xvi

Part 1 Digital Marketing Essentials 1

1 The Digital Marketing Landscape 3

2 The Digital Consumer 24

Part 2 Digital Marketing Tools 49

3 The Digital Marketing Toolbox 51

4 Content Marketing 95

5 Online Communities 125

6 Mobile Marketing 151

7 Augmented, Virtual and Mixed Reality 181

Part 3 Digital Marketing Strategy and Planning 203

8 Audit Frameworks 205

9 Strategy and Objectives 225

10 Building the Digital Marketing Plan 249

11 Social Media Management 270

12 Managing Resources 294

13 Digital Marketing Metrics, Analytics and Reporting 309

14 Integrating, Improving and Transforming Digital Marketing 339

References 361

Index 386

1.1 A framework for analysing the pace of technology substitution 5
1.2 Application of digital disruption across industry sectors 13
1.3 Consumer-centric IoT business models 15

2.1 The scope of consumer behaviour 27
2.2 Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) 29
2.3 Typology of consumer communication (C2B/C2C) in the

digital age 32
2.4 Online customer service experience (OCSE) conceptual model 41

3.1 Digital marketing toolbox 54
3.2 Example of email marketing 56
3.3 Why email works model 58
3.4 Tweet from AdAge 69
3.5 ASOS off-page SEO 74
3.6 Model of blog success 81
3.7 The honeycomb model 84
3.8 Investing in social media 90

4.1 From keyword to long-tail keyword 98
4.2 The Furrow Russian edition 100
4.3 The Content Marketing Pyramid 105
4.4 Strategic content building blocks for awareness 106
4.5 Example of image used for brand awareness 107
4.6 Strategic content building blocks for conversion 108
4.7 Strategic content building blocks for retention 109
4.8 Paid, owned, shared, earned (POSE) media model 113
4.9 The TripAdvisor content gate 119
4.10 Example of targeted content by Superdry 120
4.11 Content themes and content promotion framework 121
4.12 The Content Maximiser 122
4.13 Examples on the vividness to interactivity scale 123

5.1 Example of London Northwestern Railway Trains use
of Twitter as a customer service channel 141

5.2 Key factors in online community management 141
5.3 Community lifestages model 144
5.4 Example of customer complaining behaviour directness 146
5.5 The place of social media in the customer complaining process 147
5.6 Example of double deviation by an organisation 149

6.1 The structure of an m-payment ecosystem 158
6.2 The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion 162


6.3 Mobile advertising effectiveness framework 164
6.4 How ad networks work to manage publishers,

applications and advertisers with an
advertisement library 166

7.1 Simplified representation of a
virtuality continuum 183

7.2 Technology Readiness Scale 186
7.3 Technological variables influencing telepresence 188
7.4 Lockheed Martin Mars Experience Bus 191
7.5 Typology of experiential value 194
7.6 IKEA VR kitchen app 195
7.7 Gatwick Airport augmented reality wayfinding

app using beacons 197
7.8 Conceptual model for an adoption framework for mobile

augmented reality games 199

8.1 Digital marketing audit in context 207
8.2 Ten Cs of marketing for the modern economy 209
8.3 Forresters 5Is 220

9.1 The TOWS matrix 230
9.2 The social media strategy framework 234
9.3 The acquisition, conversion, retention framework 236
9.4 The McKinsey consumer decision journey 238
9.5 Hierarchy of objectives 242
9.6 Business goals adapted into digital marketing objectives 243

10.1 The 9Ms of resource planning 258
10.2 Social media campaign planning process 262
10.3 Framework for digital marketing campaign objectives 263
10.4 Impact and effort matrix 268

11.1 Increasing levels of media richness 275
11.2 Classification of social media by social presence/media

richness and self-presentation/self-disclosure 276
11.3 Stage model of social media adoption 280

12.1 Line messaging system 296
12.2 The T-shaped web marketing skill set 297
12.3 The T-shaped web marketer 298
12.4 The Suitability, Acceptability, Feasibility (SAF) framework 304

13.1 Weak, acceptable and strong metrics 315
13.2 Flowchart of customer search loop 320
13.3 Example of web address using UTMs 325
13.4 When Facebook users are on site for a business to business

organisation 326


13.5 Strategic dashboard 334
13.6 Framework for the adoption and success of dashboards 336

14.1 Vanish Tip Exchange example 342
14.2 Communication goals 344
14.3 IMC conceptual framework 345
14.4 Example heatmap 350
14.5 Actual customer journey 352
14.6 Path to superior firm performance 359

1.1 Adopter categories and general characteristics 7
1.2 The move from traditional to digital marketing tools 10
1.3 Generational cohorts 11

2.1 Differences in customer acquisition for
traditional and digital consumers 28

2.2 Initial scale items for Perceived Usefulness and
for Perceived Ease of Use 30

2.3 Customer experience management 38
2.4 What we know about customer experience 38
2.5 Service blueprinting with examples 42
2.6 Aligning the customer journey and business strategy 43

3.1 Development of the digital marketing toolbox 53
3.2 Website purpose and function 61
3.3 Examples of HTML code 73
3.4 Personal data available via social media pages 84
3.5 The utility of social media for business 88

4.1 Content Marketing Strategy Framework 101
4.2 Content purpose blueprint 102
4.3 Digital persona elements 103
4.4 Storybox Selection 104
4.5 Content purpose blueprint and metrics 112

5.1 Timeline of online communities 128
5.2 Demographic features within online communities 134
5.3 Rules of engagement examples 142
5.4 How to manage different types of online complaints 148

6.1 Mobile marketing implications 152
6.2 Use of wearables for marketing 160
6.3 Mobile advertising options 163
6.4 Benefits and downside of programmatic advertising 168

7.1 Virtual and augmented reality timeline 184
7.2 Six dimensions of interactivity 189
7.3 Experiential value applied to retail examples of

virtual and augmented reality 194
7.4 Industry bodies 200


8.1 Customisation techniques 214
8.2 Reasons why customers make contact with organisations 216
8.3 Evaluation of British Airways current digital marketing methods 221
8.4 Digital PESTLE used as an evaluation of opportunities and threats 222

9.1 Themes and metaphors in marketing 227
9.2 Strategy models 228
9.3 Digital marketing strategy models 232
9.4 Application of the McKinsey consumer decision

journey to strategy 239
9.5 Business goals based on organisation type 242

10.1 Digital application of the 7Ps to ASOS and Boohoo 252
10.2 Strategy, digital marketing objectives and tactics 253
10.3 One-page digital marketing plan 254
10.4 Building the action plan 256
10.5 Digital media plan example 267

11.1 Overview of main social media platforms 271
11.2 Prominent features of the four social media tools 276
11.3 Summary of the 5C categorisation 278
11.4 Risk evaluation for an #AMA event 283
11.5 Social media monitoring and management tools 288
11.6 Midlands Air Ambulance Charity aligning the digital

marketing and social media strategy 292

12.1 The RASCI and RACI models 301
12.2 RACI roles and responsibilities example 302
12.3 Key considerations in the SAF framework 305
12.4 SAF framework scoring example applied to PetBnb 306

13.1 Twitter data 311
13.2 Metrics from traditional to digital 312
13.3 Financial KPIs 314
13.4 Metrics and how to apply them 316
13.5 Web analytic data elements 321
13.6 Social media analytics terminology 325
13.7 Email analytics data available 328
13.8 Management and dashboard systems 337

14.1 Message appeals applied to digital marketing 341
14.2 The 7Cs of integration 343
14.3 The 4Cs of cross-platform integration 348
14.4 Companies failing to adopt digital business 353

Annmarie Hanlon is a Senior Lecturer in Digital Marketing at the University of
Derby and a practitioner who works on digital marketing strategy and social media
projects with charities, household names and service businesses.

Originally a graduate in French and Linguistics, Annmarie subsequently gained a
Masters in Business Administration, focusing on marketing planning. She studied
for the Chartered Institute of Marketing Diploma for which she won the Worshipful
Company of Marketors award for the best worldwide results.

As an early adopter, working in online marketing since 1990, she is a Senior Examiner
in digital strategy, a Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Marketing, a Member of the
Marketing Institute Ireland and a Liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Marketors.
Annmarie is past winner of the Mais Scholarship and her research interests include
the strategic use of social media in organisations, differences in practice between
generations and the technology that makes it happen.

Follow her updates on Twitter @AnnmarieHanlon

Writing a textbook on digital marketing is achieved with a supporting cast of prac-
titioners and academics. As a hybrid part-academic and part-practitioner I am in a
wonderful and unique space with access to students as well as organisations of all
shapes. Whilst I would like to list everyone who has helped, this would be like the
never-ending speech at the awards ceremony! May I thank you all, you know who
you are #RoundOfApplause.

Special thanks are due to: Karen Jones at Aston University, who provided constant
motivation and helped with the content marketing and online communities chapters;
Adam Civval at Greendog Digital, David Peck at the University of Derby and Peter
Rees, an examiner in digital marketing, who all provided inspiration and ideas for
mobile marketing; Karl Weaver, the CEO of Isobar, who shared insights into program-
matic advertising; Richard Shambler, a long-established examiner in digital marketing
and an expert in the SAF framework; some of my former digital marketing students
now working in agencies and in-house: Joe Alder, Imogen Baumber and Jade Walden.

Thanks to those behind the scenes, including: Jonathan Saipe and Tracey Stern, who
deliver digital training at Emarketeers, Brian OKane at Oak Tree Press in Cork, who
inspired me to write my earlier practitioner books, Dave Chaffey, who encouraged
me to write a textbook, plus the plethora of anonymous reviewers who provided
fantastic feedback.

Translating the book from an idea to reality was made possible by the detailed
and dedicated SAGE team, ably managed by Matthew Waters, Delia Alfonso and
Jasleen Kaur.

Digital marketing is a journey that can take an organisation towards new markets,
discover new opportunities and protect the current landscape. In the digital marketing
journey you can choose to be a navigator or a passenger. As a navigator you explore
options, set the course and lead the way. As a passenger you can sit back and take
in the scenery or you can lean forward and advise the navigator.

Whilst digital marketing was established 20 years ago and is one of the fastest moving
and most exciting aspects of marketing today, there are fewer universities and colleges
providing digital marketing education. As a result there is still a lack of understanding
and fewer established frameworks to make it easier to adapt business practices and
adopt new ways of working. This book aims to provide that understanding and share
the latest concepts to apply in organisations, whether you are a student working on
a case study, or heading into your placement year, or juggling a part-time vocational
marketing module with work.

Students can think of this textbook as a digital marketing roadmap, a blueprint for
your digital journey, to enable you to become navigators rather than passengers.

The book contains three key parts. Depending on your knowledge you may start at
Part 1 or jump straight into Parts 2 or 3.

Part 1, Digital Marketing Essentials, equips you with a useful context to the digital
landscape. Discover the key concepts to understand how we arrived in this new world
and comprehend more about the changing digital consumer.

Part 2, Digital Marketing Tools, provides a rich source of the key components. It
starts with an overarching toolbox that explores all possible digital marketing tactics,
followed by more detail with dedicated chapters on content marketing, online com-
munities, mobile marketing and augmented, virtual and mixed reality. It is critical to
understand the tools available before embarking on a digital strategy.

Once you have comprehended the digital marketing tools, this is a good time to
explore Part 3, Digital Marketing Strategy and Planning. This part investigates digital
audit frameworks to ensure you are ready to develop the strategy and objectives,
before building the digital marketing plan. Newer issues, including social media
management, managing resources, digital marketing metrics, analytics and report-
ing, are included. The part concludes with methods of integrating, improving and
transforming digital marketing, enabling you to apply the knowledge and tools gained
though the chapters.

Enjoy the journey and lets start the campaign to create more digital navigators!


Head online to access a wealth of online resources that will aid study and support

teaching, available at: https://study.sagepub.com/Hanlon. Digital Marketing:

Strategic Planning & Integration is accompanied by:

Editable PowerPoint slides will allow you to easily integrate each chapter into

your lessons and provide access to figures from the book

Kahoot! quizzes will help you test students knowledge and understanding
of the materials

Instructor manuals for each chapter will provide further support when teach-
ing each chapter and encourage discussion in sessions

A digital marketing strategy and plan template can be used to help students
get their project off the ground

Downloadable templates can be added to course resources or printed out
for use in class

Follow the links to SAGE journal articles selected by the authors to help you

supplement your reading and deepen your understanding of the key topics
outlined in each chapter

Access links to helpful websites with lots of extra information to reference
in your assignments




1 The Digital Marketing Landscape 3
2 The Digital Consumer 24



When you have read this chapter, you will be able to:

Understand key issues in the digital landscape

Apply communications theories to a digital environment

Analyse technology change

Evaluate blockchain potential

Create a plan to become an opinion leader

When you have worked through this chapter, you should be able to:

Manage online reputation using third-party tools

Apply the search engines EU privacy removal process for unwanted content


The fast-changing digital landscape provides many opportunities for marketers. It is
important to understand key concepts such as ubiquitous computing and how the
pace of technology has changed. This chapter explains how traditional marketing
models like Diffusion of Innovation are still valid and apply to online opinion lead-
ers, as well as differences between generations.

We explore the meaning and impact of digital disruption and the Internet of Things,
with new business models emerging to understand how this applies to consum-
ers. In a world where your personal information has value, you can discover more
about big data and privacy issues that affect marketing plans. The last part of this
chapter considers bitcoin and blockchain and how this might influence the future of
data management.

The growth of digital marketing has changed the relationship between businesses
and customers. Scholars and practitioners agree that organisations are keen to use
digital marketing to engage with their customers and we have moved into a new era
where things look different.

The term ubiquitous computing was originally coined by Mark Weiser, who was head of the
Computer Science Laboratory at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) when writing in
Scientific American in 1991 (Weiser, 1991). At that time Weiser commented that in the future
there would be computers everywhere and we would not notice their presence; they would
just be there.

Some decades later, we have computers at home and with us at university; they are embed-
ded in our mobiles, wearables, in cars, in outdoor billboards everywhere. We have reached
Weisers vision that computers are integrated seamlessly into the world at large (p. 94).

One of the reasons for these trends and the change in the digital landscape is due to
the acceleration in the adoption of new technologies. It took more than 50 years for
over 50% of US households to adopt telephones (imagine life with no phone!), nearly
20 years to adopt home computers, yet it took less than 10 years for the same group
to adopt smartphones.

In a pre-digital age, you booked a holiday by visiting the travel agents on the high
street. It was only on arrival at your holiday destination that you saw what the hotel
really looked like. Today you will go online, read reviews, see traveller photos or
holiday snaps others have shared and ask questions of people who have actually
visited the destination IRL (= in real life).


Writing in the Harvard Business Review, Ron Adner and Rahul Kapoor (2016) explored
the pace of technology substitution and suggested that the speed of replacement was
based on ecosystems. Old technology ecosystems may find product extension oppor-
tunities whereas the new technology ecosystems need to counter these challenges.
Within their framework there are four quadrants, as shown in Figure 1.1, which can
be described as:

Creative destruction, where there are few challenges to the new tech and few
opportunities for the old tech, resulting in fast substitution.

Robust coexistence, where the old tech fights back and brings out alternatives
and a gradual substitution takes place.

Illusion of resilience, where the new tech moves in with few challenges.

Robust resilience, where old tech fights back and new tech challenges, bringing
about a gradual substitution.












































IN THE 1990S






Figure 1.1 A framework for analysing the pace of technology substitution

Source: Adner and Kapoor, 2016, p. 66


It could be argued that there are limitations to this framework as the research was
based on a five-year study in the semiconductor manufacturing industry and adop-
tion of new products is not always based on product desire, but also availability.
In some countries it is harder to get a landline phone than a mobile. The landline
requires wires and major investment whereas a mobile network is simpler to deploy.
At the same time, growth in landline telephone ownership is declining sharply, espe-
cially in the G12 industrially advanced nations. Explore the latest statistics on the
Telecommunication Development Sector (ITU-D, 2017).

Activity 1.1 Analyse Technology Change
1. Working in groups, use Figure 1.1, the framework for analysing the pace of technology substi-

tution, to analyse the types of technology changes that you have witnessed in your lifetime.

2. What were the greatest changes?

3. Why was this?

4. Are there any difficulties ensuring all four quadrants in the framework are included?

How do we learn about new products or what influences our judgement to adopt new
technology? In 1944 sociologists and behavioural scientists Paul Lazarsfeld, Bernard
Berelson and Hazel Gaudet conducted a study to see how mass media affected voters
in the US election campaign for President Franklin Roosevelt (Lazarsfeld et al., 1944).
The surprising result of their research was that it was influencers, or opinion leaders,
not the media, that had the greatest impact. Influencers, who received the messages
from what at that time were mainly traditional newspapers and radio, shared this
with their followers.

The research was further developed by Paul Lazarsfeld and Elihu Katz who named this

the two-step flow theory of communications (Lazarsfeld and Katz, 1955) where the

media communication was received by the influencer and then passed to other


There were limitations to the two-step flow theory of communications. It was based on
one piece of research, which meant that it was not necessarily generalisable to other
situations. It may be that this was a set of exceptional circumstances that could not be
repeated. Another issue is that it was a simplistic binary model which assumed that this
is how mass media worked. As a result of these limitations, the model was extended
from two to multiple steps (the multi-step flow), which was developed by John Robinson
(Robinson, 1976) and was used as a basis for other communications theories.


A key aspect of the digital environment is that we have moved from two-step or
multi-step to a totally different understanding of communications with newer models
emerging, such as media richness (see Chapter 11, Social Media Management) and
uses and gratifications theory (see Chapter 13, Digital Marketing Metrics, Analytics
and Reporting), although at the same time some much older theories, such as diffu-
sion of innovations, have remained valid.

In 1962 Everett Rogers published a book entitled Diffusion of Innovations, which was based on
the two-step flow of communications and explored the conditions that increased or decreased
the likelihood of product adoption.

In this model, based on how a product gains momentum and spreads or diffuses through
a group, Rogers proposed five adopter categories (1) innovators; (2) early adopters; (3) early
majority; (4) late majority; (5) laggards which considered the time at which an individual
adopted an innovation.

The five adopter categories were ideal types fabricated to make comparisons, and Rogers
recognised these generalisations. There was criticism of the terminology no one wanted to be
considered as a laggard, which was perceived as being a negative label. Table 1.1 shows some
of the general characteristics identified, which I have adapted to apply to digital marketing.

The one notable category is that early majority were seen as opinion leaders, an idea
which was identified in the two-step flow theory of communications and which reverberates
within digital marketing as organisations strive to seek those to influence product adoption.

Table 1.1 Adopter categories and general characteristics

Adopter category General characteristics % adopters of innovation

(1) Innovators Active information seekers, often
buying the latest gadget who
in class has a pair of Snapchat


(2) Early Adopters Opinion leaders who are happy
adopting new products, seeking
information before others whose
opinion do you seek in class when
buying gadgets?


(3) Early Majority Deliberate before adopting
active blog readers who like to
gather evidence before deciding.


(4) Late Majority Sceptical and nearly the last
to adopt they may still own a
feature phone.


(5) Laggards Suspicious of inventions and only
adopt when no choice perhaps
the one remaining lecturer with no
mobile phone!



Rogers generalised that opinion leaders (see Key Term) were more cosmopolitan
than their followers. One prescient observation from Rogers was that opinion leaders
needed access to mass media and had to be accessible. Think about those opinion
leaders with mass followers on YouTube and Twitter they meet these conditions.

Opinion formers are formal experts. They work in this area, may be qualified or professionally
trained and have significant specialist knowledge about the subject.

Opinion leaders are informal experts who carry out research and whose knowledge is
valued amongst family, friends and followers.

As Lazarsfeld, Berelson, Gaudet, Katz and Rogers observed, the opinion leaders, or
influencers, are key to spreading the word about new products and services. These
influencers are generating an income from their online following and, according to
Forbes.com (OConnor, 2017), a paid-for social media post can be very lucrative, with
fees of $25,000 paid to a top yoga teacher (e.g. Rachel Brathen) for their endorsement
or $3000 to $5000 paid to a recognised fitness instructor.

The fees can be higher for specific social media platforms where they have greater
numbers of followers and fans, for example:

$300,000 for a YouTuber with 7 million subscribers or more

$200,000 for Facebook

$150,000 for Instagram

In our digital age, as celebrities charge more and more to promote brands, brands
are turning to alternatives. We have seen the development of a new type of opinion
leader, the micro-influencer. Forbes.com suggested that an Instagram user with
100,000 followers can command $5,000 for a post made in partnership with a com-
pany or brand (OConnor, 2017, p. 1).

Carol Scott, whilst director of marketing at a specialist influencer company, described micro-
influencers as everyday individuals with small, dedicated followings online (Scott, 2016, p. 1).

Writing in Adweek, Emma Bazilian provided a profile of a female millennial micro-
influencer: typically aged between 18 and 34 with 2000 to 25,000 Instagram followers,
attracting an engagement rate of 3% and higher. Their key topics were fashion,


beauty, travel or fitness (Bazilian, 2017). Bazilian added that the brand marketers
could employ these micro-influencers to promote and increase product and brand
awareness and specifically to:

Seed products

Promote sample products

Share unbox videos

Create how to videos

Develop day in the life of

Share trending content

Attend events

Promote discount codes

Host product competitions

Smartphone Sixty Seconds
Evaluate Your Influencers
On your mobile phone search for your favourite influencers. You might follow them on Instagram but
they may have additional social media profiles too.

Find all their online profiles.
Add up the number of followers on each.
Find a sponsored post and share with classmates.
Try to figure out what they were paid for the post and what impact you think it had.

Case Example 1.1 Eltoria Influencer
Eltoria is the alter ego of Simone Partner and, as an influencer, Simone is not an IT girl or someone
who has a famous dad. She had a very different starting point and is a law graduate from the Uni-
versity of Reading, where she gained a 2:1 degree.

In the last year of studying law, Simones course included one non-law module and she opted for
entrepreneurship and for her assessment started the Eltoria UK fashion and lifestyle blog based on
her interests. At the time she was working at the organic skincare firm Lush. She enjoyed the module,
which was evidenced in her results a first-class grade. After university she pursued a career in law
and her first job was in a big commercial firm, which she didnt enjoy, so she tried a smaller legal firm.
However, in both firms she discovered that law was not a career in which she felt she could work for



the rest of her life. Having continued with the blog and subsequently winning many awards, Simone
realised that it could be a career option. The awards allowed Simone to take some time off and focus
on the blog to see if it could work.

Today Simone has generated an impressive following on YouTube, Instagram, Facebook and
Twitter. She is not the average fashion blogger: shes intelligent, her content is well written, with great
depth and analysis. Having been at university, she has had typical student jobs in retail stores and
understands the challenges faced by those who are working and studying. This may be one of the
reasons that sh


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