Cluster

  

This case-study examines the patterns, symmetries, associations and causality in a rare but devastating disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A major clinically relevant question in this biomedical study is: What patient phenotypes can be automatically and reliably identified and used to predict the change of the ALSFRS slope over time?. This problem aims to explore the data set by unsupervised learning (you only need to work on K mean in this assignment).

Load and prepare the data.
Perform summary and preliminary visualization (i.e. show the clustering with selected features).
Train a k-Means model on the data with selected features (3 or more), experiment at least two different k values, and explain which k value is a better choice.
Evaluating the model performance by report the center of clusters.
Visualize the final clustering result.

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Submit Python code, report that explains the k experiment, performance evaluation, and visualizations.

Case-Study 15

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

Overview: This case-study examines the patterns, symmetries, associations and causality in a rare but devastating disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS demands conducting clinical trials and collecting big, multi-source and heterogeneous datasets that can be interrogated to derive potential biomarkers. Overcoming many scientific, technical and infrastructure barriers is required to establish complete, efficient, and reproducible protocols (pipelines/workflows) starting with acquiring raw data, preprocessing, aggregation, harmonization, analysis, visualization and result interpretation.

The clinical data shows that the rate of ALS progression varies significantly among patients. Majority of the patients die within 3 to 5 years after ALS onset, however, a few are able survive for over 10 years. This heterogeneity of disease course hinders demonstration of its biological mechanism and development of effective treatment. We need to develop reliable predictive models of ALS progression to understand the pathophysiology of the disease.

Driving Challenges:

What patient phenotypes can be automatically and reliably determined?
Predict the change of the ALSFRS slope change using the holistic patient-specific data.
Predict survival of patients at a given time-point (post diagnosis).

Meta-Data

There are 2 datasets:
training (N1=2,223):
ALS_TrainingData_2223.csv, and

testing (N2=78):
ALS_TestingData_78.csv

Each dataset includes the following 131 variables:

ID; Age_mean; Albumin_max; Albumin_median; Albumin_min; Albumin_range; ALSFRS_slope; ALSFRS_Total_max; ALSFRS_Total_median; ALSFRS_Total_min; ALSFRS_Total_range; ALT.SGPT._max; ALT.SGPT._median; ALT.SGPT._min; ALT.SGPT._range; AST.SGOT._max; AST.SGOT._median; AST.SGOT._min; AST.SGOT._range; Basophils_max; Basophils_median; Basophils_min; Basophils_range; Bicarbonate_max; Bicarbonate_median; Bicarbonate_min; Bicarbonate_range; Bilirubin..total._max; Bilirubin..total._median; Bilirubin..total._min; Bilirubin..total._range; Blood.Urea.Nitrogen..BUN._max; Blood.Urea.Nitrogen..BUN._median; Blood.Urea.Nitrogen..BUN._min; Blood.Urea.Nitrogen..BUN._range; BMI_max; bp_diastolic_max; bp_diastolic_median; bp_diastolic_min; bp_diastolic_range; bp_systolic_max; bp_systolic_median; bp_systolic_min; bp_systolic_range; Calcium_max; Calcium_median; Calcium_min; Calcium_range; Chloride_max; Chloride_median; Chloride_min; Chloride_range; Creatinine_max; Creatinine_median; Creatinine_min; Creatinine_range; Eosinophils_max; Eosinophils_median; Eosinophils_min; Eosinophils_range; Gender_mean; Glucose_max; Glucose_median; Glucose_min; Glucose_range; hands_max; hands_median; hands_min; hands_range; Hematocrit_max; Hematocrit_median; Hematocrit_min; Hematocrit_range; Hemoglobin_max; Hemoglobin_median; Hemoglobin_min; Hemoglobin_range; leg_max; leg_median; leg_min; leg_range; Lymphocytes_max; Lymphocytes_median; Lymphocytes_min; Lymphocytes_range; Monocytes_max; Monocytes_median; Monocytes_min; Monocytes_range; mouth_max; mouth_median; mouth_min; mouth_range; onset_delta_mean; onset_site_mean; Platelets_max; Platelets_median; Platelets_min; Potassium_max; Potassium_median; Potassium_min; Potassium_range; pulse_max; pulse_median; pulse_min; pulse_range; Red.Blood.Cells..RBC._max; Red.Blood.Cells..RBC._median; Red.Blood.Cells..RBC._min; Red.Blood.Cells..RBC._range; respiratory_max; respiratory_median; respiratory_min; respiratory_range; Sodium_max; Sodium_median; Sodium_min; Sodium_range; SubjectID; trunk_max; trunk_median; trunk_min; trunk_range; Urine.Ph_max; Urine.Ph_median; Urine.Ph_min; Urine.Ph_range; White.Blood.Cell..WBC._max; White.Blood.Cell..WBC._median; White.Blood.Cell..WBC._min; White.Blood.Cell..WBC._range

References:

Tang, M., Gao, C, Goutman, SA, Kalinin, A, Mukherjee, B, Guan, Y, and Dinov, ID. (2018)
Model-Based and Model-Free Techniques for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Diagnostic Prediction and Patient Clustering,
Neuroinformatics, 1-15,
DOI: 10.1007/s12021-018-9406-9.

https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=1%2C23&q=%22proact%22+%22als%22&btnG= ID
Age_mean
Albumin_max
Albumin_median
Albumin_min
Albumin_range
ALSFRS_slope
ALSFRS_Total_max
ALSFRS_Total_median
ALSFRS_Total_min
ALSFRS_Total_range
ALT.SGPT._max
ALT.SGPT._median
ALT.SGPT._min
ALT.SGPT._range
AST.SGOT._max
AST.SGOT._median
AST.SGOT._min
AST.SGOT._range
Basophils_max
Basophils_median
Basophils_min
Basophils_range
Bicarbonate_max
Bicarbonate_median
Bicarbonate_min
Bicarbonate_range
Bilirubin..total._max
Bilirubin..total._median
Bilirubin..total._min
Bilirubin..total._range
Blood.Urea.Nitrogen..BUN._max
Blood.Urea.Nitrogen..BUN._median
Blood.Urea.Nitrogen..BUN._min
Blood.Urea.Nitrogen..BUN._range
BMI_max
bp_diastolic_max
bp_diastolic_median
bp_diastolic_min
bp_diastolic_range
bp_systolic_max
bp_systolic_median
bp_systolic_min
bp_systolic_range
Calcium_max
Calcium_median
Calcium_min
Calcium_range
Chloride_max
Chloride_median
Chloride_min
Chloride_range
Creatinine_max
Creatinine_median
Creatinine_min
Creatinine_range
Eosinophils_max
Eosinophils_median
Eosinophils_min
Eosinophils_range
Gender_mean
Glucose_max
Glucose_median
Glucose_min
Glucose_range
hands_max
hands_median
hands_min
hands_range
Hematocrit_max
Hematocrit_median
Hematocrit_min
Hematocrit_range
Hemoglobin_max
Hemoglobin_median
Hemoglobin_min
Hemoglobin_range
leg_max
leg_median
leg_min
leg_range
Lymphocytes_max
Lymphocytes_median
Lymphocytes_min
Lymphocytes_range
Monocytes_max
Monocytes_median
Monocytes_min
Monocytes_range
mouth_max
mouth_median
mouth_min
mouth_range
onset_delta_mean
onset_site_mean
Platelets_max
Platelets_median
Platelets_min
Potassium_max
Potassium_median
Potassium_min
Potassium_range
pulse_max
pulse_median
pulse_min
pulse_range
Red.Blood.Cells..RBC._max
Red.Blood.Cells..RBC._median
Red.Blood.Cells..RBC._min
Red.Blood.Cells..RBC._range
respiratory_max
respiratory_median
respiratory_min
respiratory_range
Sodium_max
Sodium_median
Sodium_min
Sodium_range
SubjectID
trunk_max
trunk_median
trunk_min
trunk_range
Urine.Ph_max
Urine.Ph_median
Urine.Ph_min
Urine.Ph_range
White.Blood.Cell..WBC._max
White.Blood.Cell..WBC._median
White.Blood.Cell..WBC._min
White.Blood.Cell..WBC._range

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11
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262
234
5.8
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5200
4900
4500
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141
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347997
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2
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5.63
4.79
0.00574514

32
69
40
37
33
0.0175
-1.814327485
32
18
12
0.049140049
74
27
15
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54
25
16
0.095
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0.4
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26
23.6
19.5
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7
5
0.0225
9.7
5.9
4.3
0.0135
0.002477591
85
80
70
0.036855037
150
129
120
0.073710074
2.48
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2.35
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107
104
101
0.015
94
55
28
0.165
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2.9
1.5
0.00625
2
7.1
4.6
3.3
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3
0
0.01965602
55
49
43
0.03
183
162
147
0.09
2
0
0
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23.6
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11.8
0.0295
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6.5
4.5
0.01275
12
12
12
0
-232
4
329
258
214
5.2
4.6
3.8
0.0035
78
68
60
0.044226044
6300
5600
4900
3.5
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2
0
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147
143
138
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376346
6
1
0
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5.5
5
0.0025
11.4
8.5
6.4
0.0125

33
66
40
38
35
0.012077295
-1.412202381
32
28
18
0.033816425
48
15
12
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40
20.5
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0.3
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28
24.6
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10.26
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5.8
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0.00265625
90
78
70
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126
112
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2.445
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105
102
100
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73
65
46
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4.2
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6.9
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8
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48
45
41
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157
146
140
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12
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4
483
387
347
5.4
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85
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4700
4500
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3
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144
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382706
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34
62.24109589
48
45
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14
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31.5
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4.6
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76
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35
68.42191781
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102
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229
229
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37
57.59178082
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100
97
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44
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60
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60.18630137
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0
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141.5
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1
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219
219
219
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40
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27
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33.5
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160
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120
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30.35
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4
340
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41
57
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42
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38
44
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83
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39
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54
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155
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82
70
61
0.04

SHOW MORE…

Management Report

What you need to do to complete Assignment 3
Assignment 3 requires you to consolidate what you learned in the course (Weeks 1-11) by
1) choosing and analyzing a case study
2) creating and populating a professional profile on LinkedIn and reflecting on it
3) reflecting on what you learned in the course and how it will help you in your future career
and
4) writing an academic reflection that includes the above three
1) Analyzing a case study
Case studies are used to describe events and situations that happen in real life over a periodof time. The process of analyzing a case study involves reading through the case very carefullyand finding actual/potential problems/challenges included in the case and then proposingsolutions to solve these problems/challenges. This usually involves answering the followingquestions:
what is happening?
why it’s happening?
how to solve the problem?
When answering these questions, you must use relevant theories and research to developand propose solutions to these practical situations.
Please refer to RMIT Learning Lab’s ‘Writing a case study ‘ for further information on how toanalyze a case study.(h???? ps://emedia.rmit.edu.au/learninglab/content/wri ng-case-study)
Case study analysis
In Assignment 3 we ask you to CHOOSE ONE of the following three cases and analyze themusing relevant theories, frameworks and concepts from topics 1-11 in the course.
Module 1 (Topic 1 to 4): Management Work

KTS Saving and Credit Society
Module 2 (Topic 5 to 8): The Context of Managers’ Work
Sustainability Culture.pdf
Module 3 (Topic 9 to 12): The Functions of Management
International TQM challenges.pdf
A resource has been created for you to demonstrate what is expected of a high-quality casestudy analysis. Please see ‘Analysing a case study’ page.
2) Creating a LinkedIn Profile
As part of the requirements of Assignment 3, you must also create and fill in a LinkedIn profilewith:
a personal statement
your education
digital badge(s) of any RMIT micro-credential(s) you have completed (not necessary toinclude them if you have not completed any RMIT micro-credentials)
Once you have filled in your details, you must populate your profile by developing andengaging with your network by following at least:
3 LinkedIn influencers
3 companies
3 academic institutions
You must also engage with your network by:
Liking or commenting on 6 posts on LinkedIn
Once you have filled in and populated your profile, you can compare your profile to theExample LinkedIn Content.pdf . (https://rmit.instructure.com/courses/91910/files/25900197/download?download_frd=1)
IMPORTANT: Please ensure that your LinkedIn profile is set to ‘Public’ so that it can be viewedby the person marking your A3.
3) Academic Reflection
Once you have completed the above, you will write a 2000 word academic reflection thatincludes the following sections. You may write the academic reflection in the First Person butmake sure that your writing is not too informal.(https://rmit.instructure.com/courses/91910/files/25900193/download?download_frd=1) (https://rmit.instructure.com/courses/91910/files/25900190/download?download_frd=1) (https://rmit.instructure.com/courses/91910/files/25900194/download?download_frd=1)

2022/10/12 05:52 Topic: How do I complete Assignment 3

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How do I complete Assignment 3

All secons

What you need to do to complete Assignment 3

Assignment 3 requires you to consolidate what you learned in the course (Weeks 1-11) by

1) choosing and analyzing a case study

2) creating and populating a professional profile on LinkedIn and reflecting on it

3) reflecting on what you learned in the course and how it will help you in your future career

and

4) writing an academic reflection that includes the above three

1) Analyzinga case study

Case studies are used to describe events and situations that happen in real life over a period
of time. The process of analyzing a case study involves reading through the case very carefully
and finding actual/potential problems/challenges included in the case and then proposing
solutions to solve these problems/challenges. This usually involves answering the following
questions:

what is happening?
why it’s happening?
how to solve the problem?

When answering these questions, you must use relevant theories and research to develop
and propose solutions to these practical situations.

Please refer to RMIT Learning Lab’s ‘Wring a case study
(hps://emedia.rmit.edu.au/learninglab/content/wring-case-study) ‘ for further information on how to
analyze a case study.

Case study analysis

In Assignment 3 we ask you to CHOOSE ONE of the following three cases and analyze them
using relevant theories, frameworks and concepts from topics 1-11 in the course.

Module 1 (Topic 1 to 4): Management Work

https://emedia.rmit.edu.au/learninglab/content/writing-case-study

2022/10/12 05:52 Topic: How do I complete Assignment 3

https://rmit.instructure.com/courses/91910/discussion_topics/1689868 2/3

KTS Saving and Credit Society
(https://rmit.instructure.com/courses/91910/files/25900193/download?download_frd=1)

Module 2 (Topic 5 to 8): The Context of Managers’ Work

Sustainability Culture.pdf
(https://rmit.instructure.com/courses/91910/files/25900190/download?download_frd=1)

Module 3 (Topic 9 to 12): The Functions of Management

International TQM challenges.pdf
(https://rmit.instructure.com/courses/91910/files/25900194/download?download_frd=1)

A resource has been created for you to demonstrate what is expected of a high-quality case
study analysis. Please see ‘Analysing a case study’ page.

2) Creating a LinkedIn Prole

As part of the requirements of Assignment 3, you must also create and fill in a LinkedIn profile
with:

a personal statement
your education
digital badge(s) of any RMIT micro-credential(s) you have completed (not necessary to
include them if you have not completed any RMIT micro-credentials)

Once you have filled in your details, you must populate your profile by developing and
engaging with your network by following at least:

3 LinkedIn influencers
3 companies
3 academic institutions

You must also engage with your network by:

Liking or commenting on 6 posts on LinkedIn

Once you have filled in and populated your profile, you can compare your profile to the
Example LinkedIn Content.pdf
(https://rmit.instructure.com/courses/91910/files/25900197/download?download_frd=1) .

IMPORTANT: Please ensure that your LinkedIn profile is set to ‘Public’ so that it can be viewed
by the person marking your A3.

3) Academic Reection

Once you have completed the above, you will write a 2000 word academic reflection that
includes the following sections. You may write the academic reflection in the First Person but
make sure that your writing is not too informal.

https://rmit.instructure.com/courses/91910/files/25900193?wrap=1

https://rmit.instructure.com/courses/91910/files/25900193/download?download_frd=1

https://rmit.instructure.com/courses/91910/files/25900190?wrap=1

https://rmit.instructure.com/courses/91910/files/25900190/download?download_frd=1

https://rmit.instructure.com/courses/91910/files/25900194?wrap=1

https://rmit.instructure.com/courses/91910/files/25900194/download?download_frd=1

https://rmit.instructure.com/courses/91910/discussion_topics/1689867

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Search entries or author

Write a reply…

The academic reflection will have the following seven sections:

A cover sheet/title page which includes:
the assignment name, your name and student number, your tutor’s name, and your
tutorial day and time

1. 1 Introduction to describe the overall structure of the academic reflection (200 words)
2. 1 section for analyzing 1 case study (750 words). This should be the same case study that

you chose from the above list
3. 1 section to explain how you chose to populate your LinkedIn profile (250 words)
4. 1 section to reflect on what your future career may be and how you will use 2

theories/skills you learned from the course in your future career (700 words)
5. 1 Conclusion to summarize writing in the previous sections of the academic reflection (100

words)
6. 1 section that clearly provides the URL to your LinkedIn Profile (not included in the word

count)
7. Your reference list should have between 6 – 12 academic journal article citations for the

case study as well as the other sections on the LinkedIn profile and reflecting on your
learning. The reference list is not included in the word count. All references used must be
journal articles published within the past 10 years (i.e., 2012-2022)

Remember to consistently link each section of the report to a relevant/appropriate
management theory, framework, and/or concept that you learned this semester.
Being specific, instead of making general statements, will improve the quality of your effort –
and your mark. Remember, you are attempting to demonstrate your learning from this course
in application.

Your academic reflection will automatically go through Turnitin when you submit it on Canvas.
You must ensure that the Turnitin similarity percentage for your reflection is 20% or less.

Unread Subscribe KTS Saving and Credit Society:
managing communication

Anne Christine Wanjiru Kabui

Anne Christine Wanjiru
Kabui is based at
Department of Business
and Entrepreneurship,
South Eastern Kenya
University, Kitui, Kenya
and Department of
Business, University of
Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.

The growing trend in the Savings and Credit societies in Kenya has been tremendous and
necessitating of new approaches to management and governance issues. Moving away
from a small and personal business, to an elaborate modern business that requires
professionalism has been a big challenge for us as an organization especially in the
domain of communication among staff members, communication with the board, with the
members and with other key stakeholders, said Mr Cyrus, the acting CEO of KTS in May
2015. He went on to explain that the balance between time for work, meetings and
individual consultations to ensure that none had been overdone at the expense of others
and that none were overlooked. This balance was faced with the challenge that, when
members do not feel listened to, or that their opinion does not count, the whole essence of
communication and smooth management facilitation is lost:

Substantial effort is being made toward these ends, especially following results of a recent study
because, if all the members in KTS do not communicate, make themselves understood as well
as understand relied messages, then managing the organization will be impossible so will be

the achievement of its core mandate, he said.

KTS visit

On a beautiful and warm afternoon, Anne walked into the premises of KTS and was
welcomed with a smile from the guard in charge. Sir, I havent been here before, could you
kindly assist me find my way to Mr Cyrus office? Gladly, Japheth the guard walked Anne
through the corridors explaining what each of the offices we walked along hosted. Here we
are, Japheth resounded when we got to one of the offices and the far end of the corridor.
Feel at home and walk in once ready, he said before he walked away. Cyrus was very
busy with a stack of papers in one of his hands and a calculator in the other and, as Anne
walked through the door, the secretary ushered her into his office. Welcome, madam
Anne, we have been expecting you, Cyrus greeted. As they were about to progress, the
phone rang and on the other end was another member of staff in need of his immediate
attention. The visitor we were expecting is already here. Allow me a few minutes with her
and I will be right there, Cyrus explained to the caller:

Thank you for taking an interest in our organization and for wanting to review us for case study
analysis for academic purposes. I am promising you our best cooperation and we also hope to

learn from you about one or two thing we could do better, Cyrus said.

We shall use boardroom two and you could have a chance to speak to management and
members of staff plus a few of the owners/customers of our organization and this will hopefully
give you an all-round picture of our organization. This will be important for us as an organization

so we know where we are, what to work on and the challenges at hand.

I wish to acknowledge the
great assistance of Cyrus
Mutinda during the
interactions with the entire
SACCO fraternity and his
great assistance in facilitating
my visits and interactions with
the firm members. I would also
want to acknowledge the
immense assistance I have
received from Dr Katuse while
preparing this case study.

Disclaimer: This case is written
solely for educational
purposes and is not intended
to represent successful or
unsuccessful managerial
decision-making. The author/s
may have disguised names;
financial and other
recognizable information to
protect confidentiality.

DOI 10.1108/EEMCS-03-2015-0044 VOL. 6 NO. 2 2016, pp. 1-13, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, ISSN 2045-0621 EMERALD EMERGING MARKETS CASE STUDIES PAGE 1

http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/EEMCS-03-2015-0044

Anne was impressed with the welcome, appreciated that, despite its busy schedule, the
organization was open and willing to cooperate. The entire group of participants was not
informed of the details of her visit in an effort to ensure that they carried on as natural and
neutral as possible with no prior preparation of what to say or not to say:

The findings will be availed to the management to facilitate improvement and to give an
indication of what is already working. Value addition and continuous improvement is part and
parcel of progressive growth in organizations, Anne was careful to explain to Cyrus.

Background of KTS

KTS is a saving and credit cooperative society (SACCO) operating in Kenya, where it is
considered a large SACCO with an asset base of Kshs 2.4 billion and a large membership
of above 13,000 members. It was registered in 1976 and started operations in 1978 with an
initial membership of 11 who were all in one profession, but, over the years, there has been
consideration to extend and accommodate members from other professions both in private
and public sectors in an effort to raise their asset base and serve more people. The SACCO
is located in the South Eastern region of Kenya, and all its five branches are in the same
region. A SACCO is a microfinance institution where members come together to contribute
for the common good of all, and it is unique because shareholders are the customers which
gives them the democratic right to run the business. In most cases, the membership is
drawn from members of the same profession. The SACCO is owned by members who make
deposits and obtain loans from it, has a board of directors who are elected members to sit
in the executive board, its operations are run by a Chief Executive Officer (CEO), deputy
CEO, Finance Manager, Marketing Manager, Front Office Service Activity Manager,
Internal Audit Head, Head of Communication and Technology and Credit Section Head,
each who has a deputy and a team of employees in each department. All these parties
need to communicate in good time and effectively to enhance efficiency of the operations
of the SACCO. Due to the socio-cultural factors that predominately govern behavior and
interactions in Africa, the organization has specific dynamics in their internal
communications that have blended culture and modern management.

Internal communication in KTS

Cyrus is the Deputy CEO and was sitting in for the CEO who was abroad on a business trip,
and he was able to mobilize a random and representative sample of the entire team of the
company comprising of managers, employees, board members and the SACCO members
who are owners and customers of the business. For privacy, reduced intimidation and the
ability to allow each member to talk freely, Anne met and spoke to each person alone in the
boardroom, as the others continued to do their regular work. Anne promised confidentiality
and anonymity of what was shared by the individual and explained that what was being
undertaken was for academic purposes in teaching as an illustrative aid. Anne further
explained that individuals were free to share what they felt comfortable with, and were able
to decline if they were not comfortable with sharing information. The majority of those who
partook were open and free, very engaging and asked Anne questions about the project;
however, a few were quite hesitant and did not divulge much which was respected.

Having come from a perspective where individuals got jobs because of who they knew and
not due to their qualifications, there was a tricky tradeoff to balance, but substantial effort
was being made by management toward this end, especially through staff meetings which
deal with issues at lower levels before forwarding them to senior management. Previously,
there has been a culture where individual employees sought the attention of the CEO on
matters that could have sufficiently been addressed at departmental level, and sometimes,
senior management or board members have given instructions to junior employees without
allowing the communication to flow through the respective managers and departmental
heads.

PAGE 2 EMERALD EMERGING MARKETS CASE STUDIES VOL. 6 NO. 2 2016

The current team of management was trying to address this, and they acknowledged
that, although it was not easy, it was doable. To ensure the smooth flow of operations
in the daily running of the SACCO, departmental heads were encouraged to hold
weekly staff meetings to ensure all members are at par and know what is expected of
them on a real-time basis as well as a forum designed to address emerging issues was
available to all members often enough during the staff meetings. These forums allow for
the clarification of unclear issues and also the possibility of giving and receiving
feedback from colleagues and supervisors. Individual consultations were also
encouraged for private and personal issues.

Communication within KTS was gauged differently by different employees, with some
feeling it was fairly good and open, enabling the flow of information back and forth, as
employees could walk into any office and seek direction which would be received
immediately and, if any clarification was required, it was obtained immediately. The boss
would also offer instructions verbally and expect results in any form, verbal or written.
Others felt that too much verbal communication was used that had no reference points and
documentation, and this leaves the discretion of owning information to the providers of the
information. This was especially felt as a challenge where, in the case of the change of the
officer in charge, points of reference would be scanty if not absent:

When a new person joins the department and there is no documented communication, it is very
challenging because you have to solicit verbal information which will sometimes not be the
same from different parties that were involved, was a comment made by the communication
officer.

Some organizational members also felt that certain senior executives did not respect the
organizational structure and chain of command and tended to make direct communication
to junior staff members which caused confusion in the communication flow and created a
sense of disrespect. KTS does not have one specific network of communication but instead
uses a mixture of different networks depending with who is offering the message and for
whom it is intended:

When a member walks into my office with a complaint, and upon an enquiry from my junior
official I am told they got direction from a board member on how to address the concerns, it
leaves me at a loss. I do not know how to respond to the member without raising concerns while
at the same time I cannot reprimand the junior because they only acted on instructions, it is a
delicate balance.

This is mainly because, outside of work, most of the people have other social relationships
which makes it easier to talk to an individual on a personal level instead of following the
formal channel recommended for all formal operation.

Employees of KTS expressed a desire to have more free interactions with their
management, both formal and informal, which they felt would enable and facilitate better
working relationships in the workplace. They felt the workplace should not only be a
techno-economic system but also a social system as well, as this would highly boost their
morale:

Feeling listened to and that our opinion counts will be very helpful. When as employees we seek
audience and it is not granted, we sit back and always discuss these issues within our social
circles. Sometimes this is delicate, because some of us later discuss it with management behind
our back, was a sentiment shared by the majority of the junior officers.

Senior management, on the other hand, felt that it was critical to evaluate the balance
between time for work, meetings and individual consultations to ensure none was overdone
at the expense of others and that none were overlooked.

Communication to SACCO members (savers and depositors) was done through notices
pinned on a staff notice board, which some members felt was not good enough as not

VOL. 6 NO. 2 2016 EMERALD EMERGING MARKETS CASE STUDIES PAGE 3

all members frequent the offices and hence may not get the communication. Over time,
SACCO has embraced digital communication through mobile phone short messages
(SMS), the KTS website, Facebook and personal emails to reduce paper, cut costs and
enhance real-time communication which will be both effective and efficient. This has,
however, had both a positive uptake by the younger members and relatively slow
uptake by the older members. There was still spiral communication through
word-of-mouth where members have not fully adopted technology, especially in
receiving financial status updates through SMS with most still demanding a printed
copy for filing. Slowly but surely, the organization has been helping older members
accept the changing times. When departments have to communicate to members, the
information have to go through the CEO and get approval by the board before it can be
sent out to members to ensure that what is sent out to members is fully processed
information. For peer release, salary notices or education workshops, they are updated
on the website for members to access freely and share among themselves by
word-of-mouth for those with no internet access.

As the SACCO business is by members and for members, they are involved in executive
decision-making where their views are captured during Annual General Meetings
(AGM). The entire membership is invited to the AGM and is expected to make a
contribution to the policies being discussed. This worked well initially when there were
just a few members, but over the time, as the numbers have increased, there has been
a need to shift to the delegate system to ensure all members are listened to and able
to participate. The feeling that it is not objectively possible to listen to 13,000 members
in one sitting and incorporates all their viewpoints in the policy making was shared
across the organization; however, the challenge on how to choose the delegates
remained unaddressed. Some of the members were also of the opinion that the process
of delegate selection will leave every major decision in the hands of a few members
which will not be fair to all. The dilemma then was on what takes precedence: is it the
desire to have an objective-driven AGM with delegates representing the entire
membership or is it the preservation of trust issues where members are afraid that, in
their absence, the delegates will propel their individual interests and not the interests
of the general membership?

In KTS, employees received an appointment letter indicating all the responsibilities they
were to undertake, which also leaves room for other duties assigned by their supervisor or
manager. It was felt that this was followed to the letter and employees felt they knew what
was expected of them. The station heads were working toward resolving a previous culture
where junior officers reported directly to the CEO, and are now in the process of ensuring
that the administrative structure is followed and that employees report to and receive
instructions from just one manager. This has had a lot of challenges, especially with
employees learning how to handle personal relationships alongside work relationships, as
most employees have complex relationships, with many having known each other
previously.

Conclusion

An open-door policy was practiced within the KTS, though it presented a few
challenges; for instance, members who knew each other at a personal level seemed to
enjoy the policy more compared to those who met at the workplace for the first time.
During breaks, staff tended to sit with those they were familiar with and have informal
discussions with new members of staff. Employees rated the open-door policy as fairly
good and practical, and it is of importance to note that this feeling was not shared
across the board, as some members felt that the open-door policy only worked
depending with who you are and what position you hold. Management feel, on the other
hand, that they were trying to undo the culture of people not respecting the scalar chain
of command, directing their concerns to the CEO even before addressing them with
their immediate supervisor. The balance of undoing a retrogressive organization

PAGE 4 EMERALD EMERGING MARKETS CASE STUDIES VOL. 6 NO. 2 2016

culture versus allowing all employees to feel listened to, is delicate, was the sentiment
of Cyrus and the team of top management in KTS:

Having grown from a small group of 11 friends who had their affairs run by one clerk, to an
organization with over 50 employees in head office and branches, over 13,000 members, a
board of nine members and three supervisory committee members, you can only imagine the
dynamic and drastic change in internal communications within KTS.

Cyrus said to Anne to conclude their discussion. Anne left the SACCO with much to
consider with regards to the organizations communication networks (Figure 1).

About the author

Anne Christine Wanjiru Kabui is a 30-year-old lady, pursuing a doctoral degree in strategic
management at the University of Nairobi Kenya and is currently lecturing business courses,
especially management courses at the South Eastern Kenya University.

Figure 1 Organization structure for KTS

Page 9 of 9

BOARD OF
DIRECTORS

Chief Executive Officer (CEO)

Deputy CEO/ Finance Manager

Audit Manager

Audit Assistant

Admin Secretary

Assistant Secretary

Branch/FOSA
Manager

Credit Manager Marketing
Manager

ICT Manager

System
Admin

Tellers

Branch
Cashier

FOSA
Supervisor

Customer
Service Officer

Marketing
Officer

Loans Supervisor

Security
Officers

Support
Officers

Branch Loans
Appraising Officer

Accountant

Assistant
Accountants

Society
Cashier

Registry
Officer

Registry
Superintendent

Loan Officer-
Appraisal

AGM

Supervisory Commiee

Keywords:
Management,
Communication,
SACCO

VOL. 6 NO. 2 2016 EMERALD EMERGING MARKETS CASE STUDIES PAGE 5

KTS Saving and Credit Society: managing communication

KTS visit
Background of KTS
Internal communication in KTS
Conclusion 2022/10/12 05:51 Assessment Task 3: Exploring the functions of management (Individual)

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Assessment Task 3: Exploring the functions of manage

ment (Individual)

Due 21 Oct by 23:59 Points 40 Submitting a file upload File types doc, docx, and pdf
Available 18 Jul at 0:00 – 30 Dec at 23:59

Start Assignment

Course code and title: BUSM4176 Introduction to

Management

Assignment name: Exploringthe functions of management

Weight: 40%

Assignment due date: Week 13 (Friday 21st October 2022 at

11.59pm)

Length: 2000 words ( 10%), excludes the reference list

Turnitin Similarity Score: 20% or less (excludes the

Assignment cover page and reference list)

References: 6-12 academic journal articles

Guidelines: Click here for instructions on how to complete

Assignment 3

Learning Objectives Assessed:

Learning
outcomes

This assignment task addresses the following Course Learning Outcomes

CLO1: Evaluate leadership and management research and justify the application of
management theory in contemporary contexts.

CLO2: Research management theory and explain how this theory applies to contemporary and
socially responsible practices.

CLO3: Effectively collaborate with others to locate appropriate resources to organise information
and generate management solutions.

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CLO4: Critically reflect on the relationship between management theory and management
research evidence and communicate your knowledge of responsible management practices.

Assignment overview

Rationale: Why is this important?

Introduction to Management provides an overview for the broad set of skills and issues you need to be aware of
as you manage yourself and others throughout your career. This assessment item has been designed to help you
authentically summarise what you have learned this semester by:

(1) analysing cases using material linked to the learning modules,

(2) thinking proactively how you will use what you have learned in your career (reflected in the LinkedIn profile).

Assignment details

Assignment task: What do I need to do?
1. How to analyze a case study according to the instructions HERE
2. Write an academic reflection according to the instructions HERE

Turnitin Similarity Score

Turnitin promotes academic integrity by checking that your assignments are your own work and that you have
acknowledged the work and ideas used from other sources. An originality report is generated by scanning your
work and comparing the text against sources in its database. The report shows where matches have been found
with an overall percentage of how much of the text is original. Your submitted assignment is also added to the
database to reduce plagiarism.

A higher percentage does not mean that you will automatically have marks deducted, but instead prompts your
marker to take a closer look to ensure that your submission meets RMIT’s standards of academic integrity. If it is
found that academic integrity has been compromised, you may be given a penalty of up to 20% or may
be called before an academic misconduct hearing. So please ensure that you do not compromise
academic integrity when you complete your Assignment 3.

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2022/10/12 05:51 Assessment Task 3: Exploring the functions of management (Individual)

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ITM – A3 – 2200

What is Academic Integrity? – OlderWhat is Academic Integrity? – Older

Assignment Declaration

I declare that in submitting all work for this assignment I have read, understood and agree to the content and
expectations of the assessment declaration (https://www.rmit.edu.au/students/student-essentials/assessment-
and-exams/assessment/assessment-declaration) .

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Criteria Ratings Pts

12 pts

10 pts

Comprehension 12 to >9.6 Pts
HD

The student has
understood and
addressed all task
requirements
appropriately. The
key management
challenges in the
case studies were
correctly identified
and explored
thoroughly using
management
theory.

9.6 to >8.4 Pts
D

The student has
understood and
addressed all task
requirements
appropriately. The
key management
challenges in the
case studies were
correctly identified
and adequately
explored using
management
theory.

8.4 to >7.2 Pts
CR

The student has
u

  

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