For this assignment, you will create a PowerPoint presentation of your research plan that you have been developing in Units IIII. You will be amending and updating this PowerPoint presentation in future units.
Your PowerPoint presentation must contain the elements below:
a title and introduction slide,
nine slides of content (refer to the unit lesson for a sample format), and
reference slide(s).
Your presentation should clearly demonstrate your plan to answer your research question and show the hypotheses.
It should demonstrate your understanding of the different types of research methods and approaches by explaining your rationale in your selections.
It should demonstrate your understanding of data sampling and distributions.
You must use a minimum of two sources,
in addition to any literature presented as a part of the plan,to support your presentation. You must utilize the
Slide Notesfunction in PowerPoint to add speaker notes to each slide that you would use to explain and expand on slide content as if you were actually presenting this plan to the institutional review board.

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You must use at leasttwo sources to support your presentation.
Adhere to APA Style when creating citations and references for this assignment. APA formatting, however, is not necessary. RCH 5302, Foundation for Research 1

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit IV

Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

1. Develop a research strategy and design using appropriate components.
1.1 Explain how research will answer questions and solve problems.

3. Examine qualitative and quantitative research methods.

3.1 Discuss why a research plan will use either qualitative or quantitative research methods.

4. Explore the dynamics of data sampling and distributions.
4.1 Explain how data sampling and distributions will be used in a research plan.

Learning Outcomes

Learning Activity


Unit Lesson
Chapter 2, p. 32
Appendix A, pp. 449-450
Article: Declaring and Diagnosing Research Designs
Unit IV PowerPoint Presentation

Unit Lesson
Unit IV PowerPoint Presentation


Unit Lesson
Chapter 5, pp. 153158
Chapter 8, pp. 233242
Chapter 11, pp. 340341
Appendix A, pp. 449-450
Unit IV PowerPoint Presentation

Required Unit Resources

Chapter 2: Generating and Shaping Ideas: Tradition and Innovation, p. 32

Chapter 5: Measurement: Qualities of Measures, pp. 153158

Chapter 8: Qualitative Research, pp. 233242

Chapter 11: Recruiting Participants, pp. 340341

Appendix A: Decision Tree for Statistical Analysis, pp. 449-450

In order to access the following resource, click the link below.

Read pp. 838856 in the article below.

Blair, G., Cooper, J., Coppock, A., & Humphreys, M. (2019). Declaring and diagnosing research designs.

American Political Science Review, 113(3), 838859. https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-


Research Plan and Introduction
to Data Sampling


RCH 5302, Foundation for Research 2



Unit Lesson

Refining the Research Plan for Approval and Action

Upon determining the problem; developing the research question; drafting a tentative plan, including the
selection of a method and design; and reviewing the literature, a researcher is close to actively conducting the
research; however, one significant challenge remains: gaining approval. Reasonably, a research proposal will
gain approval if the plan is feasible, sound, and complete with sufficient details; fits as a follow-on step as
shown in pertinent literature; and fits the needs of the organization (if you are completing requirements for a
degree conferral, that is one of the organizations needs). A few researchers look forward to briefing their
proposals to leaders; others may dread it. For all researchers, such a presentation of their intended work
publicly is a key event that demonstrates the researchers competence and effectiveness and contributes to
their individual reputations as professionals. Being excessively shy or boisterous is not forbidden in research,
though neither characteristic will help encourage reviewers to approve a proposal. First-time disapproval with
recommendations for changes will not doom a research study, though with the inevitable additional work
involved to try again, it is much preferred to prepare a thorough and polished proposal that will get approved
the first time.

Finalizing the Research Plan

The material in Units IIII and here in Unit IV illustrate the progression of building a research study from its
beginning, when a problem or question emerges, to the major milestone of having the plan complete enough
to brief it for approval. A good plan will include all of the commonly used research components or an
explanation of why an exception to an omitted component is an optimal choice. The remaining components of
the research design and data collection and analysis plan are developed, and the previously drafted
components from the research problem/question to the literature review are checked and refined. These
components are then all combined to form the research proposal.

Research proposals are written, developed as slides, or both. Certainly, the researcher follows required
organizational formats or, for the best chance of approval, formats of previously approved studies as a
measure of conforming. As can be seen in previous reading assignments, a highly detailed written research
proposal may be organized as shown below.

Introduction (problem, purpose, the significance of the study, research question[s], the definition of

Review of Literature

Research Method and Design

As a final and full report on the completed research, the results below would be added.

Presentation and Analysis of Data (and findings)

Conclusions and Recommendations (limitations of the study, possible sources of bias, suggestions
for further research)

The researchers may not be writing a full report but, rather, a more abbreviated yet still significant report of
perhaps a few to 20 or more pages. As you have seen in previous reading assignments, the researchers may
combine the introduction of the research with the review of literature in one section.

A research proposal slide presentation may be organized as shown below.

Slide 1: Problem statement

Slide 2: Purpose statement

Slide 3: Significance of the study

Slide 4: Research question(s)

Slide 5: Definition of terms

Slide 6: Selected literature

Slide 7: Methodology

RCH 5302, Foundation for Research 3



Slide 8: How the research will be conducted

Slide 9: How data analysis will be conducted

Later, once the research is complete, the following information would be amended and/or added to the full

Slide 8: How the research was conducted

Slide 9: How analysis was conducted

Construct additional slides for the areas below.

Findings and implications


Suggestions for further research


We continue our exploration of research by focusing on the research process. The research process is taking
action (research actions) and gaining informationusually by following frequently practiced and commonly
accepted steps. The process and its steps are components assembled with procedures and other features
added. The process is the organization of actions and the acquisition of information in order to verify the
problem and question, review recorded ideas and findings, plan the research, gather and analyze the data,
develop ones own ideas about the research and findings, and report the findings and conclusions of the
research. Repeated below are the steps of the research process in the order that they are usually conducted.

Simplified, the research process may resemble the example below.

In later units of this course, you will see that the commonly accepted research report or paper format roughly
follows these steps.

Recall that the research methods in the two major categories of research, quantitative and qualitative, are as
shown below (with some variation in certain industries and professions).

RCH 5302, Foundation for Research 4



When developing their research strategy and design, researchers estimate the situation of their proposed
study, select one of these methods, and add all needed coordination details to refine their planning. Rarely,
but sometimes, they may choose two methods (e.g., for a two-part study). In business and academia alike,
researchers can expect to brief their plan to an authority figure as a research proposal with the goal of gaining
approval, authorization, funding, or all of these.

Data Sampling

Arguably the most stimulating phase of research is the actual collection (sampling) of data. Many researchers
imagine themselves actively conducting research, and this component of research design is where this
happens. Data sampling is planned and presented as a part of the proposal; such an important component
needs to be organized with no effort or resources wasted. Additionally, the reputation of the studys academic
rigor and veracity is at stake at the time of data sampling. As with the other components of research, there are
some time-tested conventions on data sampling, which will be explored in the second part of Unit IV.

The idea of running a model (in a quantitative study) or commencing with interviewing (in a qualitative study)
and then collecting the results is a straightforward concept. What follows are a few principles of data
management and interviewing and some effective practices (tips) that match them.

Using a hypothesis model usually entails mathematics, physics, and/or chemistry. These categories account
for most quantitative studies. The researcher is well prepared for these due to their experience in college, but
it is useful to recall the concepts of measurement. As depicted in the textbook, academia recognizes four
main measurement types (Devlin, 2021). Nominal is counting in categories, such as the numbers of yes or no
answers; inherently, these have no orderjust totals of each type. Ordinal measurement is sorted into an
order of value, and we all agree that zero is nothing, and value proceeds from not much above zero to a
lot. However, these data values are not necessarily evenly spaced from one another. If you need the latter
attribute, interval measurement scale is ordinal measurement with equally spaced intervals between data
points. Ratio measurement scale is similar to the interval measurement scale but with a zero point, which the
interval measurement scale does not have to have.

These measurement types each have advantages. Nominal measurement, with its categorical data collecting,
is useful for qualitative studies and can offer open-ended interview questions, such as What do you like
about your housing situation? These collected answers (data) can be analyzed by simple frequency of
answer or with a mathematical model, such as a chi-square analysis if the researcher constructed a matrix of

RCH 5302, Foundation for Research 5



categories. Interval measurement is well suited for continuous data, and with that, exponential probability
distribution models can be used for data analysis.

In qualitative studies, there are some practices to keep the data sampling clean. Indeed, some of these
procedures can be described to demonstrate how your proposed study will avoid most biases. Qualitative
studies usually entail the observer collecting data by using the observers own sense of sight, hearing,
understanding of interview responses, and other abilities. This is how research studies regarding natural
animal, plant, and human social behavior are commonly conducted. As noted in pp. 239240 of the textbook,
an observer may be recording sight or sound, be concealed, or have to decide what to record and for how
long (Devlin, 2021). Additionally, researchers must take care not to have their data collection skewed by
unexpected factors such as the Hawthorne Effect, which is named from the study conducted at the Western
Electric Hawthorne plant. In the 1920s, workers observed performances, and efficiency rose before falling
again. It was concluded that the workers worked harder in response to being observed and provided with
increased attention, and they reduced their productivity when they grew suspicious that the studies were a
prelude to employee downsizing. These initiatives from the sample population can distort the data.

An excerpt of a data collection plan in a quantitative research proposal may resemble the example below.

An excerpt of a data collection plan in a qualitative research proposal may resemble the example below.

With the research plan finalized and the research proposal approved, the researcher is cleared and ready for
the most satisfying stage of the processactual data sampling. These lessons of the first half of the course
were designed to prepare you, the researcher, to conduct the most active part of research. In Unit V and
subsequent units, we will explore more on data sampling, data analysis, and reaching conclusions on the


Devlin, A. S. (2021). The research experience: Planning, conducting, and reporting research (2nd ed.).

SAGE. https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781544377933

The following research question and hypothesis were the focus for this research (cite others work or
descriptions to support why you chose this research design). After the population sample was
determined, a survey was used to collect desired data on vehicle preferences of single and partnered
purchasers. The independent variable, vi = vehicle purchasers, was manipulated as planned by
measuring preferences of participants in the sample regardless of gender pairing, formality, or absence
of marriage.

Qualitative research and, specifically, the phenomenological research method proved to be well matched to
the research problem (cite others work or descriptions to support why you chose this research design).
The research question was (insert research question). The population under study was focused on shop or
factory foreman of a responsibility range for one major manufacturing process, supervision of four to no
more than 10 employees, or both. The method of sampling will be to contact the owner or senior manager
of each of the following companies to request access. The interview questions consisted of (insert interview
questions). These questions were intended to collect the following data (list): (insert data).

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit IV
Required Unit Resources
Unit Lesson

Refining the Research Plan for Approval and Action
Finalizing the Research Plan
Data Sampling 2





The research proposal explores the role of motivation in the education environment and student learning. Comprehensive background on the topic is provided in developing a solid foundation for the research. Also, a description of the proposals reliance on scientific theories of motivation, such as Maslows theory as a basis, is provided, after which a research problem and questions are developed. In conclusion, the proposal explains qualitative research methodology as it will be applied.
The research aims to determine the role of motivation in education in the environment as a strategy to enhance learning and maximize academic performance. In attaining the studys goal, Maslows Motivation Theory of needs is relied upon in informing the research.


Motivation is the inclination or eagerness to act that comes from inside. Motivation is the driving force behind people’s efforts to envision a desired future and take steps toward realizing that future. Someone who enjoys running, for instance, could decide to test themselves by training for a 5K or 10K race. If they succeed at such distances, they could next set their sights on running a half-marathon and then a full marathon. Kids who wish to improve their arithmetic skills often use memorization techniques like spaced repetition and drills until they are confident they have mastered all fundamental multiplication concepts. As with many aspects of life, motivation is crucial to success in school and life. At the beginning of a new school year or academic semester, instructors often try to get to know their pupils (Lin et al., 2021). This serves many reasons, including learning more about their passions and interests or what drives their pupils.
As educators get to know their students better, they will be better able to incorporate student interests, hobbies, and passions into classroom discussions, projects, and tests. Suppose a teacher has a few pupils who are more interested in physical activity or sports, a few who prefer painting, and others who are captivated by technology. In that case, they may tailor the assessment’s “menu” to meet the needs of all of them. When a teacher has a variety of alternatives for how to use class time, they may pique the interest and enthusiasm of many pupils at once. Students might demonstrate their understanding by filming a brief video or giving a presentation in class; they could illustrate their findings using a poster, infographic, or brochure; or they could make a short animated movie or slideshow. A fantastic method to establish the essential expectations for a grade is to create a rubric for students, outlining the standards that must be included for whatever project is selected (Zainuddin, 2018).

Maslows Theory of Needs

Students’ physiological needs come first since they are crucial to life. Abraham Maslow, a psychologist, devised Maslow’s Hierarchy of Wants in the 20th century to outline a person’s essential to the most complex requirements. This approach has been successful in company management for decades, and it is recently moved to educational motivation. The essay examines the book’s impact on psychology and education.
Students should feel comfortable in their classrooms. Safety is not only about physical boundaries. Emotional and mental safety in the school is equally vital. Students must raise questions and make recommendations without fear of a teacher or peer judgment. A student must feel comfortable in the classroom and learning environment before graduating to Maslow’s next stage, belonging (Navy, 2020).
Maslow ranks love and acceptance as kids’ top wants. To succeed, students at this level must be able to connect to their classmates. The pupil must realize his personal and class value. After meeting all earlier prerequisites, the student may advance: Self-respect is crucial. At this stage, the learner is receptive to new knowledge and eager to excel academically. Students believe in their learning ability and are willing to take charge of their education. The fifth level is about self-fulfillment (Navy, 2020).

Research problem

Schools and educational institutions face a significant problem determining what to use in creating competitive and effective motivation incentives for students (Marsh et al., 2020). I have a long experience in the education system, rising from lower grades to college levels. Throughout the experience, various education stakeholders, such as parents, teachers, and school management, have implemented different motivation strategies to encourage students to work hard and attain better academic grades. However, there is limited knowledge of the appropriateness of the incentives awarded to the students in encouraging them to work hard and pursue better results.

Research question

What is motivation’s role in maximizing a school curriculum’s effectiveness?

Qualitative methodology

The research will be conducted through the use of qualitative methods. This involves the use of theoretical and other non-measurable data aspects to ensure there is sufficient evidence in support of the research findings. Two qualitative methods to use in the research include case studies and focus groups. Case studies will focus on institutions and research studies supporting motivation theories and application in school; In contrast, focus groups will be used in classifying regions and institutions based on their level of effectiveness in motivation-oriented curriculums.

Research approaches

The descriptive study and explanatory study approaches are applicable in ensuring that the purpose of the research is attained. A descriptive study aims to figure out what it is about a situation that makes it unique. Since it would be impossible to provide an exhaustive account of the topic, it is necessary to cherry-pick the presented information. To prove the existence of conflicting interests, it is essential to collect data by a set of predetermined criteria (Opie, 2019).
Explanatory research aims to provide light on a perplexing subject. This elucidative research seeks to discover the chain of events that led up to a specific outcome. In a typical study, the researcher gathers empirical data, uses that data to generate hypotheses or less pretentious hunches, and then uses any number of methods at his disposal to test those hypotheses.


Lin, Y. N., Hsia, L. H., & Hwang, G. J. (2021). Promoting pre-class guidance and in-class reflection: A SQIRC-based mobile flipped learning approach promotes students billiards skills, strategies, motivation, and self-efficacy.
Computers & Education,
160, 104035.

Marsh, H. W., Xu, K. M., Parker, P. D., Hau, K. T., Pekrun, R., Elliot, A., … & Basarkod, G. (2021). Moderation of the big-fish-little-pond effect: Juxtaposition of evolutionary (Darwinian-economic) and achievement motivation theory predictions based on a Delphi approach.
Educational Psychology Review,
33(4), 1353-1378.

Navy, S. L. (2020). Theory of human motivationAbraham Maslow. In
Science Education in Theory and Practice (pp. 1728). Springer, Cham.

Zainuddin, Z. (2018). Students learning performance and perceived motivation in gamified flipped-class instruction.
Computers & Education,
126, 75-88.


Some improvements needed in writing.
Paragraph structure: You have multiple paragraphs where there are 3 sentences. A well developed paragraph has a topic sentence and 4-5 sentences to support. See my announcement on writing effectively
Conclusion: I don’t see one? Ensure you review writing effectively for guidance
Although APA wasn’t graded good job on establishing subheadings 2


Role of Motivation in the Education Environment

Role of Motivation in the Education Environment

Based on the theories of motivation used in the study, the following hypotheses are made;

Positive Hypothesis

Motivation plays a vital role in students learning experience, and thus motivation directly influences the student’s performance in the learning process. Thus, motivating learners to have particular achievements will improve the student’s overall performance since they will want to be more motivated.

The null hypothesis

There is no relationship between motivation and learning; hence, motivation does not affect students’ learning and performance. Thus, if the students know the academic goals and objectives to meet specific performances, they will be motivated to work hard. Therefore, the expected learning outcome can predict the student’s performance since the students will work towards achieving the set expected outcomes.
The study aims to determine motivation’s role in education as a technique to maximize performance. Therefore, it will involve participants in a classroom setting, educators, and students. The study proposed to incorporate ethics in that; the study will involve voluntary participation such that the subject will have the freedom to decide whether to participate or not without coercion (Hayat et al., 2020). The decision of each participant will be respected, and they will not be asked to give a reason for leaving the study. Moreover, the study incorporates ethics by ensuring informed consent to the participants in the research. All potential participants participating in the research will be informed about the project’s purpose and the benefits or risks involved in the study. Through informed consent, the participant will understand all information and decide if they will participate.
In addition, the study will incorporate ethics by ensuring confidentiality during data collection; this will involve hiding the participants’ information from thirds to protect identifiable data. The study acknowledges that participants have privacy rights and will focus on protecting participants’ data (Wykes et al., 2019). Lastly, the proposed study will incorporate ethics by ensuring anonymity in the research. The study will not personalize or associate any data collected with a particular participant. Thus, ethical considerations will be necessary for the study since they will make it compelling for research.
The institutional review board focuses on protecting the rights of participants in the study by protecting their privacy rights and welfare and thus can approve or disapprove of deciding on proposed study modification. In the proposed study, the institutional review board that is critical to review the proposal is exempt from review since the review will determine the risk of the study to the participants (Lynch & Rosenfeld, 2020). The proposed study will take place in an educational setting and will involve the participation of learners and educators. The study predicts that it will not adversely affect students and educators; thus, the percipients can proceed with their normal activities learning during classroom learning. Moreover, the study will involve interaction about educational tests, such as student achievement based on motivation.
Moreover, the exempt review will focus on identifying whether the information obtained by the researcher will be recorded so that it protects the participant’s identity and cannot be ascertained easily. Also, the IRB, through exempted review, will ensure the participant’s responses are not used outside the research to prevent the subjects from risks of civil liability or to affect their employability and reputation (Lynch & Rosenfeld, 2020). Thus, the exempted review will analyze whether the educational responses are protected from access by third parties. Also, the exempted review of the proposed study will determine whether it has adequate provisions for safeguarding participants’ privacy and confidentiality of their information. Thus, the IRB review of the study will be critical in determining if the study meets ethical standards, such as protecting participant information.

Hayat, A. A., Shateri, K., Amini, M., & Shokrpour, N. (2020). Relationships between academic self-efficacy, learning-related emotions, and metacognitive learning strategies with academic performance in medical students: a structural equation model.
BMC medical education,
20(1), 111.

Lynch, H. F., & Rosenfeld, S. (2020). Institutional Review Board Quality, Private Equity, and Promoting Ethical Human Subjects Research.
Annals of Internal Medicine,
173(7), 558-562. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953621009461

Wykes, T., Lipshitz, J., & Schueller, S. M. (2019). Towards the design of ethical standards related to digital mental health and all its applications.
Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry,
6(3), 232-242.

One area of improvement.
The intro….it doesn’t meet the writing effectively guidance I have in the announcements.
What is the paper about? – Thesis
What are the main ideas?
What will be the takeaway? 2


Literature Review

Literature Review

There is a vast wealth of empirical evidence on motivation manipulability and the role of Motivation in the education environment and student learning. Different studies demonstrate Motivation’s positive and negative effects on the education environment. The studies suggest that Motivation in the context of the learning environment can increase or decrease the learning experience for the students. When applied in education, Motivation is vital to help students focus on particular goals. Thus, when students are motivated, they tend to display goal-oriented behavior crucial in the learning environment.
In the article “Digital Game-based Learning in Education: Significance of Motivating, Engaging and Interactive Learning Environments, Lampropoulos et al.(2019) cite the increased modern education needs of the student and how digital educational games can be motivating to learners. According to Lampropoulos et al. (2019), incorporating digital educational games is key to facilitating an interactive learning environment essential to motivate learners. Therefore, the pedagogical approach needs to utilize digital educational games in learning environments to engage learners in the learning process. Through digital games, students are guided towards a particular goal, and they will be motivated in the learning process since the learning environment will be student-centered. The source is essential in the research because it provides insight into how digital gaming can be an important motivator in the learning environment.
Another article, “The role of motivation, ability, and opportunity in university teachers continuance use intention for flipped teaching, by Lai et al. (2018), discusses the role of Motivation in the learning environment by examining the motivation capacity to enhance instructors intentions and continuance for flipped teaching. In their study, the researchers examine the motivation role in improving the education environment by exploring self-efficacy, three-way motivation interactions, and supportive resources in the learning environment. Lai et al. (2018) claim that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation forecast teachers’ continuance to self-efficacy and moderate their continuance usage of intention for flipped teaching. The source identifies the gap between self-efficacy by challenging motivation use in flipped instruction. Thus, converted teaching is highest for teachers where teaching resources, perceived self-efficacy, and Motivation are sufficient and reinforced and improve education learning environments.
Soriano et al.(2021) examine the significance of Motivation in learning a foreign language and the various factors that influence Motivation. The authors point out that achievement in a foreign language is highly connected to Motivation. Thus when Motivation is integrated into the learning environment, students tend to achieve better in the learning environment. Moreover, the study reveals that Motivation in the educational set-up is influenced by factors such as the teacher’s influence, the student’s desire to learn, the classroom environment, and the level of enjoyment in learning. Overall, Soriano et al.(2021) claim that Motivation is vital to improve student performance when incorporated into the education environment.
Contrary to other works, Hecht et al. (2019) focus on the long-term effects that may result from incorporating Motivation in education learning. The authors point out that extrinsic Motivation can hurt the learning environment and may make students only be motivated by the reward they want to earn after achievement. This form of Motivation may


Module 02 Course Project – WWW Research AND Module 02 Course Project – Scholarly Research

Using your favorite search engine, search for information on this topic. If you don’t have a favorite, Google is a good choice.
Select one of the results and take some notes on the content.
Save a screen shot of this website and paste it into a new Word document. The screen shot should show the top of your screen.
Below the screen shot, type in the name of your topic as the title.
Below the screen shot, intwoparagraphs, describe the information that you found. (Save your notes; you will need them for the next assignment)
You want to format your paper for APA(Title page, Reference page, cite where needed and formatted properly for APA). To see how to format properly go to Books & Tools–Library Resources–Resource Tools–APA.
Check spelling and grammar and save the file.


Using the same topic that you used for the WWW Research assignment, search for information using the search screen at the top of the Library and Learning Services page, which is located in the Resources tab at the top of your course home page.
Select one of these results and take some notes on the content.
Save a screen shot of this website and paste it into a new Word document. The screen shot should show the top of your screen.
Below the screen shot, type in the name of your topic as the title.
Below the screen shot, intwoparagraphs, compare your notes from the two selections. Some questions that you might answer are:

Which selection would you use for a term paper and why?
Was the information more complete in one selection?
What audience was the author trying to reach?
Did you understand the material?
Note:these are only suggestions; you may have other points to compare that are not listed here.
Check spelling and grammar and save the file.


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