InBrief: The Science of Neglect

How Early Childhood Experiences Affect Lifelong Health and Learning

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image.jpg Child Neglect: A Guide for Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention 9

Child neglect is the most common type of

child maltreatment.1 Unfortunately, neglect

frequently goes unreported and, historically, has

not been acknowledged or publicized as greatly as

child abuse. Even professionals often have given

less attention to child neglect than to abuse.2 One

study found that caseworkers indicated that they

were least likely to substantiate referrals for neglect.3

In some respects, it is understandable why violence

against children has commanded more attention

than neglect. Abuse often leaves visible bruises and

scars, whereas the signs of neglect tend to be less

visible. However, the effects of neglect can be just as

detrimental. In fact, some studies have shown that

neglect may be more detrimental to childrens early

brain development than physical or sexual abuse.4


How neglect is defined shapes the response to it.

Since the goal of defining neglect is to protect children

and to improve their well-beingnot to blame the

parents or caregiversdefinitions help determine if an

incident or a pattern of behavior qualifies as neglect,

its seriousness or duration, and, most importantly,

whether or not the child is safe.5

Definitions of neglect vary among States and across

different disciplines, agencies, and professional groups

(e.g., child protective services, court systems, health

care providers), as well as among individuals within

these agencies and groups. The definitions also are

used for different purposes within the child welfare

field. For example, a medical doctor may view a

parent as neglectful if the parent repeatedly forgets

to give his child a prescribed medication. This may

or may not legally be considered neglect, however,

depending on the stringency of the neglect criteria of

many CPS agencies.6

Difficulty Defining Neglect

Defining neglect historically has been difficult to do,

leading to inconsistencies in policies, practice, and

research. Without a consistent definition of neglect,

it is nearly impossible to compare research results.

This inconsistency also leads to variability in the way

neglect cases are handled.7

The debate over a definition of neglect centers on a

lack of consensus in answering these questions:

What are the minimum requirements associated

with caring for a child?

What action or inaction by a parent or other

caregiver constitutes neglectful behavior?

Must the parents or caregivers action or inaction

be intentional?

What impact does the action or inaction have on

the health, safety, and well-being of the child?

Definition and Scope

of Neglect

10 Definition and Scope of Neglect

What constitutes failure or inability to provide

adequate food, shelter, protection, or clothing?

Should failure or inability to protect be


Is the action or inaction a result of poverty rather

than neglect?8

Additionally, what is considered neglect varies based

on the age and the developmental level of the child,

making it difficult to outline a set of behaviors that

are always considered neglect. For example, leaving

a child unattended for an hour is considered neglect

when the child is young, but not when the child

is a teenager. Another issue is that many neglect

definitions specify that omissions in care may result

either in risk of harm or in significant harm to

the child. While the 1996 reauthorization of the

Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA)

(P.L. 104-235) narrowed the definition of child

maltreatment to cases where there has been actual

harm or an imminent risk of serious harm, these

terms often are not defined by law, leaving the local

CPS agencies to interpret them. This leads to a lack

of consistency in responding to families who may be

challenged to meet the basic needs of their children. 9

Definitions of Neglect

CAPTA, reauthorized again in the Keeping Children

and Families Safe Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-36), provides

minimum standards for defining child physical abuse,

neglect, and sexual abuse that States must incorporate

into their statutory definitions in order to receive

Federal funds. Under this Act, child maltreatment

is defined as:

Any recent act or failure to act on the part of

a parent or caregiver, which results in death,

serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse

or exploitation, or an act or failure to act which

presents an imminent risk of serious harm.10

A child under this definition generally means a

person who is under the age of 18 or who is not an

emancipated minor. In cases of child sexual abuse, a

child is one who has not attained the age of 18 or the

age specified by the child protection law of the State

in which the child resides, whichever is younger.11

Instances of neglect are classified as mild, moderate,

or severe.

Mild neglect usually does not warrant a report to

CPS, but might necessitate a community-based

intervention (e.g., a parent failing to put the child

in a car safety seat).

Moderate neglect occurs when less intrusive

measures, such as community interventions,

have failed or some moderate harm to the

child has occurred (e.g., a child consistently is

inappropriately dressed for the weather, such

as being in shorts and sandals in the middle

of winter). For moderate neglect, CPS may

be involved in partnership with community


Severe neglect occurs when severe or long-term

harm has been done to the child (e.g., a child

with asthma who has not received appropriate

medications over a long period of time and is

frequently admitted to the hospital). In these

cases, CPS should be and is usually involved, as is

the legal system.12

Viewing the severity of neglect along this continuum

helps practitioners assess the strengths and weaknesses

of families and allows for the possibility of providing

preventive services before neglect actually occurs

or becomes severe. There is some controversy over

whether potential harm should be considered

neglect, and, as with the definition of neglect, State

laws vary on this issue. Although it is difficult to

assess potential harm as neglect, it can have emotional

as well as physical consequences, such as difficulty

establishing and maintaining current relationships or

those later in life.13

The seriousness of the neglect is determined not

only by how much harm or risk of harm there is to

the child, but also by how chronic the neglect is.

Child Neglect: A Guide for Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention 11

Chronicity can be defined as patterns of the same

acts or omissions that extend over time or recur over

time. 14 An example of chronic neglect would be

parents with substance abuse problems who do not

provide for the basic needs of their children on an

ongoing basis. On the other hand, caregivers might

have minor lapses in care, which are seldom thought

of as neglect, such as occasionally forgetting to give

their children their antibiotics.15 However, if those

children were frequently missing doses, it may be

considered neglect. Some situations only need to

occur once in order to be considered neglect, such as

leaving an infant unattended in a bathtub. Because

some behaviors are considered neglect only if they

occur on a frequent basis, it is important to look at

the history of behavior rather than focusing on one

particular incident.


While neglect may be harder to define or to detect

than other forms of child maltreatment, child

welfare experts have created common categories of

neglect, including physical neglect; medical neglect;

inadequate supervision; environmental, emotional,

and educational neglect; and newborns addicted or

exposed to drugs, as well as some newly recognized

forms of neglect. The following sections give detailed

information on each of these types of neglect.

States definitions of neglect are usually located in mandatory child maltreatment reporting statutes (civil

laws), criminal statutes, or juvenile court jurisdiction statues. For more information about reporting laws,

visit the State Laws on Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect section of the Child Welfare Information Gateway

Web site at http://www.childwelfare.gov/laws_policies/state/reporting.cfm.

Framework for Neglect

Current theory on maltreatment views neglect from a socio-ecological perspective in which multiple factors

contribute to child abuse and neglect.16 From this perspective, one should consider not only the parents role, but

also the societal and environmental variables contributing to the parents inability to provide for the basic needs of the

child. 17 The socio-ecological model is valuable because it recognizes the shared responsibility among individuals,

families, communities, and society, thereby enabling a more constructive approach and targeting interventions on

multiple levels.18 Examples of factors to consider when looking at neglect from a socio-ecological perspective are

social isolation and poverty. For more information about factors related to child neglect, see Chapter 4, Risk and
Protective Factors.

It is important to keep in mind that not all incidents in which a person fails to provide for the basic needs for a

child are necessarily considered neglect. Factors relating to the parents health and well-being, such as mental illness,

substance abuse, or domestic violence, often contribute to neglect. Any intervention for neglect will need to consider

these factors as well.

Federal and State laws often assume that it is possible to determine clearly when parents have control over omissions

in care and when they do not. For example, children may be poorly fed because their parents are poor and are unable

to provide them with the appropriate type and amount of food. In such cases, it is important to identify factors that

may be contributing to this inability to provide, such as mental illness. However, when a family consistently fails

to obtain needed support or is unable to use information and assistance that is available, an intervention may be

required. Having a comprehensive understanding of what may contribute to neglect can help determine appropriate

interventions that address the basic needs of the child and family and also enhances professionals and communities

abilities to develop and to use interventions, regardless of CPS involvement.19

12 Definition and Scope of Neglect

Physical Neglect

Physical neglect is one of the most widely recognized

forms. It includes:

Abandonmentthe desertion of a child without

arranging for his reasonable care or supervision.

Usually, a child is considered abandoned when

not picked up within 2 days.

Expulsionthe blatant refusal of custody, such

as the permanent or indefinite expulsion of a child

from the home, without adequately arranging for

his care by others or the refusal to accept custody

of a returned runaway.

Shuttlingwhen a child is repeatedly left in the

custody of others for days or weeks at a time,

possibly due to the unwillingness of the parent or

the caregiver to maintain custody.

Nutritional neglectwhen a child is

undernourished or is repeatedly hungry for

long periods of time, which can sometimes be

evidenced by poor growth. Nutritional neglect

often is included in the category of other physical


Clothing neglectwhen a child lacks appropriate

clothing, such as not having appropriately warm

clothes or shoes in the winter.

Other physical neglectincludes inadequate

hygiene and forms of reckless disregard for the

childs safety and welfare (e.g., driving while

intoxicated with the child, leaving a young child

in a car unattended).20

Medical Neglect

Medical neglect encompasses a parent or guardians

denial of or delay in seeking needed health care for a

child as described below:

Denial of health carethe failure to provide

or to allow needed care as recommended by a

competent health care professional for a physical

injury, illness, medical condition, or impairment.

The CAPTA amendments of 1996 and 2003

contained no Federal requirement for a parent to

provide any medical treatment for a child if that

treatment is against the parents religious beliefs.

However, CAPTA also designates that there

is no requirement that a State either find or be

prohibited from finding abuse or neglect in cases

where parents or legal guardians act in accordance

with their religious beliefs. While CAPTA

stipulates that all States must give authority to

CPS to pursue any legal actions necessary 1) to

ensure medical care or treatment to prevent or to

remedy serious harm to a child or 2) to prevent

the withholding of medically indicated treatment

from a child with a life-threatening condition

(except in the cases of withholding treatment

from disabled infants), all determinations will

be done on a case by case basis within the sole

discretion of each State.21

Delay in health carethe failure to seek timely

and appropriate medical care for a serious health

problem that any reasonable person would have

recognized as needing professional medical

attention. Examples of a delay in health care

include not getting appropriate preventive

Homelessness and Neglect

It is unclear whether homelessness should be considered neglect; some States specifically omit homelessness

by itself as neglect. Unstable living conditions can have a negative effect on children, and homeless

children are more at risk for other types of neglect in areas such as health, education, and nutrition.

Homelessness is considered neglect when the inability to provide shelter is the result of mismanagement

of financial resources or when spending rent resources on drugs or alcohol results in frequent evictions.22

Child Neglect: A Guide for Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention 13

medical or dental care for a child, not obtaining

care for a sick child, or not following medical

recommendations. Not seeking adequate mental

health care also falls under this category. A lack or

delay in health care may occur because the family

does not have health insurance. Individuals who

are uninsured often have compromised health

because they receive less preventive care, are

diagnosed at more advanced disease stages, and,

once diagnosed, receive less therapeutic care.23

Inadequate Supervision

Inadequate supervision encompasses a number of

behaviors, including:

Lack of appropriate supervision. Some States

specify the amount of time children at different

ages can be left unsupervised, and the guidelines

for these ages and times vary. In addition,

all children are different, so the amount of

supervision needed may vary by the childs age,

development, or situation. It is important to

evaluate the maturity of the child, the accessibility

of other adults, the duration and frequency of

unsupervised time, and the neighborhood or

environment when determining if it is acceptable

to leave a child unsupervised.24

Exposure to hazards. Examples of exposure to

in- and out-of-home hazards include:

Safety hazardspoisons, small objects,

electrical wires, stairs, drug paraphernalia;

Smokingsecond-hand smoke, especially

for children with asthma or other lung


Guns and other weaponsguns that are kept

in the house that are loaded and not locked

up or are in reach of children;

Unsanitary household conditionsrotting

food, human or animal feces, insect

infestation, or lack of running or clean


Lack of car safety restraints.25

Inappropriate caregivers. Another behavior

that can fall under failure to protect is leaving

a child in the care of someone who either is

unable or should not be trusted to provide care

for a child. Examples of inappropriate caregivers

include a young child, a known child abuser, or

someone with a substance abuse problem.26

Other forms of inadequate supervision.

Additional examples of inadequate supervision


Leaving a child with an appropriate caregiver,

but without proper planning or consent (e.g.,

not returning to pick up the child for several

hours or days after the agreed upon pick-

up time or not giving the caregiver all the

necessary items to take care of the child);

Leaving the child with a caregiver who is not

adequately supervising the child (e.g., the

caregiver is with the child, but is not paying

close attention to the child due to constantly

being distracted by other activities);

Permitting or not keeping the child from

engaging in risky, illegal, or harmful behaviors

(e.g., letting a child smoke marijuana).27

Another common but complex example is single,

working parents who are having difficulty arranging

for appropriate back-up child care when their regular

child care providers are unavailable. For example,

a mother may leave her child home alone when the

child care provider fails to show up. If the mother

does not go to work, she can lose her job and will

not be able to take care of her child. However, if she

leaves the child alone, she will be guilty of neglect. It

is important that parents in situations similar to this

receive adequate support so that they are not forced to

make these difficult decisions.

Environmental Neglect

Some of the characteristics mentioned above can

be seen as stemming from environmental neglect,

which is characterized by a lack of environmental

14 Definition and Scope of Neglect

or neighborhood safety, opportunities, or resources.

While childrens safety and protection from hazards are

major concerns for CPS, most attention focuses on the

conditions in the home and parental omissions in care.

A broad view of neglect incorporates environmental

conditions linking neighborhood factors with family

and individual functioning, especially since the

harmful impact of dangerous neighborhoods on

childrens development, mental health, and child

maltreatment has been demonstrated.28 CPS workers

should be aware of this impact on the family when

assessing the situation and developing case plans. For

example, they can help parents find alternative play

areas in a drug-infested neighborhood, rather than

have their children play on the streets.

Emotional Neglect

Typically, emotional neglect is more difficult to assess

than other types of neglect, but is thought to have

more severe and long-lasting consequences than

physical neglect.29 It often occurs with other forms

of neglect or abuse, which may be easier to identify,

and includes:

Inadequate nurturing or affectionthe

persistent, marked inattention to the childs needs

for affection, emotional support, or attention.

Chronic or extreme spouse abusethe

exposure to chronic or extreme spouse abuse or

other domestic violence.

Permitted drug or alcohol abusethe

encouragement or permission by the caregiver of

drug or alcohol use by the child.

Other permitted maladaptive behavior

the encouragement or permission of other

maladaptive behavior (e.g., chronic delinquency,

assault) under circumstances where the parent or

caregiver has reason to be aware of the existence

and the seriousness of the problem, but does not


Isolationdenying a child the ability to interact

or to communicate with peers or adults outside

or inside the home.30

Educational Neglect

Although State statutes and policies vary, both parents

and schools are responsible for meeting certain

requirements regarding the education of children.

Types of educational neglect include:

Permitted, chronic truancypermitting

habitual absenteeism from school averaging at

least 5 days a month if the parent or guardian is

informed of the problem and does not attempt

to intervene.

Failure to enroll or other truancyfailing to

homeschool, to register, or to enroll a child of

mandatory school age, causing the child to miss

at least 1 month of school without valid reasons.

Inattention to special education needs

refusing to allow or failing to obtain recommended

remedial education services or neglecting to

obtain or follow through with treatment for a

childs diagnosed learning disorder or other special

education need without reasonable cause.31

Newborns Addicted or Exposed to Drugs

As of 2005, 24 States had statutory provisions

requiring the reporting of substance-exposed

newborns to CPS.32 Women who use drugs or alcohol

during pregnancy can put their unborn children at

risk for mental and physical disabilities. The number

of children prenatally exposed to drugs or to alcohol

each year is between 409,000 and 823,000.33 One

study showed that drug-exposed newborns constitute

as many as 72 percent of the babies abandoned in

hospitals.34 Another study found that 23 percent

of children prenatally exposed to cocaine were later

abused or neglected, compared with 3 percent who

were not prenatally exposed.35 To address the needs

of these children, the Keeping Children and Families

Child Neglect: A Guide for Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention 15

Safe Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-36, sec. 114(b)(1)(B))

mandated that States include the following in their

CAPTA plans:

(ii) Policies and procedures (including appropriate

referrals to child protection service systems and for

other appropriate services) to address the needs of

infants born and identified as being affected by illegal

substance abuse or withdrawal symptoms resulting

from prenatal drug exposure, including a requirement

that health care providers involved in the delivery or

care of such infants notify the child protective services

system of the occurrence of such condition of such

infants, except that such notification shall not be

construed to

(I) establish a definition under Federal law of

what constitutes child abuse; or

(II) require prosecution for any illegal action.

(iii) The development of a plan of safe care for the

infant born and identified as being affected by illegal

substance abuse or withdrawal symptoms;

(iv) Procedures for the immediate screening, risk

and safety assessment, and prompt investigation

of such reports.


It can be difficult to observe a situation and to know

for certain whether neglect has occurred. Behaviors

and attitudes indicating that a parent or other adult

caregiver may be neglectful include if he or she:

Appears to be indifferent to the child;

Seems apathetic or depressed;

Behaves irrationally or in a bizarre manner;

Abuses alcohol or drugs;

Denies the existence of or blames the child for

the childs problems in school or at home;

Sees the child as entirely bad, worthless, or


Looks to the child primarily for care, attention,

or satisfaction of emotional needs.36

Indicators of neglect are more likely to be visible in

the appearance or behavior of the child. Mandatory

reporters and concerned individuals should consider

reporting possible neglect if they notice that a child:

Methamphetamine Use and Child Maltreatment

In addition to the problem of prenatal drug use, the rise in methamphetamine abuse also has had a

strong impact on child maltreatment. U.S. Attorney General Alberto Gonzales recently proclaimed in

terms of damage to children and to our society, meth is now the most dangerous drug in America. 37

Children whose parents use methamphetamine are at a particularly high risk for abuse and neglect.

Methamphetamine is a powerfully addictive drug, and individuals who use it can experience serious

health and psychiatric conditions, including memory loss, aggression, violence, psychotic behavior, and

potential coronary and neurological damage.38 The drug is relatively easy to make, exposing many children

of methamphetamine users to the additional risks of living in or near a methamphetamine lab. In 2003,

3,419 children either were residing in or visiting a methamphetamine lab that was seized, and 1,291

children were exposed to toxic chemicals in these labs.39 For more information on this epidemic, go to


16 Definition and Scope of Neglect

Wears soiled clothing or clothing that is

significantly too small or large or is often in need

of repair;

Seems inadequately dressed for the weather;

Always seems to be hungry; hoards, steals, or begs

for food; or comes to school with little food;

Often appears listless and tired with little energy;

Frequently reports caring for younger siblings;

Demonstrates poor hygiene, smells of urine or

feces, or has dirty or decaying teeth;

Seems emaciated or has a distended stomach

(indicative of malnutrition);

Has unattended medical or dental problems, such

as infected sores;

States that there is no one at home to provide



According to the National Child Abuse and Neglect

Data System (NCANDS), in 2004, an estimated three

million referrals were made to CPS, representing 5.5

million children. From this population, approximately

872,000 children were found to be victims of

maltreatment, and 64.5 percent of these children were

neglected. In comparison, 18 percent of maltreated

children were physically abused, 10 percent were

sexually abused, and 7 percent were psychologically

maltreated. Additionally, 15 percent of victims were

associated with other types of maltreatment, such as

abandonment or congenital drug addiction. A child

could be identified as a victim of more than one type

of maltreatment.41

From 2000 to 2004, the rates of neglect were nearly

stable. In 2004, approximately 7.4 out of every 1,000

children in the general population were reported as

being neglected. Medical neglect is listed separately,

but it also has experienced nearly stable rates,

fluctuating between 0.5 children per 1,000 in 2000

and 0.3 children per 1,000 in 2004.42 Exhibit 2-1

shows the victimization rate by maltreatment type

from 2000 to 2004.

However, according to the Third National Incidence

Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-3), less

than one-third of child abuse and neglect cases are

reported to CPS.43 Data from NIS-3 show that

the rates of child neglect may be even higher than

noted in the NCANDS data, with 13.1 children

per 1,000 being neglected.44 Within the category

of neglect, physical neglect was the most commonly

occurring type and included abandonment; medical

neglect; inadequate nutrition, clothing, or hygiene;

and leaving a young child unattended in a motor


Mandatory Reporters

Mandatory reporters are individuals who are required by law to report cases of suspected child abuse or

neglect. They can face criminal and civil liability for not doing so. In approximately 18 States, anyone

who suspects child abuse or neglect is considered a mandatory reporter.46 In most States, mandatory

reporters are required to make a report immediately upon having suspicion or knowledge of an abusive

or neglectful situation. This initial report may be made orally to either CPS or a law enforcement agency.

Examples of individuals who typically are listed as mandatory reporters include physicians, social workers,

educators, mental health professionals, child care providers, medical examiners, and police. Every State

has statutes that specify procedures for mandatory reporters to follow when making a report of child

abuse or neglect. For more information about State laws regarding mandatory reporters, see http://www.


Child Neglect: A Guide for Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention 17

Exhibit 2-1

Victimization Rates by Maltreatment Type, 2000200447

Spotlight on Chronic Neglect

One issue in defining child neglect involves consideration of incidents of neglect versus a pattern of
behavior that indicates neglect. Susan J. Zuravin, Ph.D., at the University of Maryland at Baltimore
School of Social Work, recommends that if some behaviors occur in a chronic pattern, they should be
considered neglectful. Examples include lack of supervision, inadequate hygiene, and failure to meet a
childs educational needs. This suggests that rather than focusing on individual incidents that may or
may not be classified as neglectful, one should look at an accumulation of incidents that may together
constitute neglect.

In most CPS systems, however, the criteria for identifying neglect focus on recent, distinct, verifiable
incidents. Dr. Zuravin notes that if CPS focuses only on the immediate allegation before them and not
the pattern reflected in multiple referrals, then many neglected children will continue to be inappropriately
excluded from the CPS system. 48 For example, a family exhibiting a pattern of behavior that may
constitute neglect might have frequent CPS reports of not having enough food in the home or keeping
older children home from school to watch younger children. However, since each individual report may
not be considered neglect, the family may not receive the appropriate support or be served by the CPS
system. Additionally, many definitions of neglect that address chronicity do not identify what it means
(e.g., What does frequent reports of not having enough food in the home mean? Twice per week? Twice
per month?). This may prevent CPS caseworkers from consistently applying the child maltreatment laws
in these cases.

One study found that many children who had been referred to CPS for neglect did not receive services
because their cases did not meet the criteria for neglect. It found, however, that all of these children had,
in fact, suffered severe developmental consequences. In recognition of this issue, the Missouri Division
of Family Services assigned one of its CPS staff as a chronic neglect specialist and defined chronic neglect
as a persistent pattern of family functioning in which the caregiver has not sustained and/or met the
basic needs of the children, which results in harm to the child.49 The focus here was on the accumulation
of harm. CPS and community agencies are recognizing the importance of early intervention and
service provision to support families so that neglect does not become chronic or lead to other negative
consequences.50 For more information on this topic, see Acts of Omission: An Overview of Child Neglect at




1.2 1.0






















Physical Abuse Neglect Medical

Sexual Abuse Psychological

O ther Abuse

Maltreatment Type








2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

18 Definition and Scope of Neglect


Recurrence of child abuse and neglect remains a very

serious problem. It has been shown that subsequent

referrals of maltreatment are most often for neglect

(and, specifically, lack of supervision), regardless

of the type of maltreatment in the initial referral.51

These findings highlight the need to screen for neglect

and to provide preventive services where needed, not

just for those cases initially identified as neglect.52 It is

important to know the extent to which children who

have been in contact with CPS are victims of repeat

maltreatment in order to protect them and to prevent

its recurrence.53

Through the Child and Family Services Reviews

(CFSRs), which are a results-oriented, comprehensive

monitoring system designed to assist States in

improving outcomes for the children and families they

serve, the Childrens Bureau set a national standard for

recurrence of maltreatment, which is measured using

NCANDS data. The percent of States that met the

national standard increased fro



see attachments.

Why It Matters: Early Childhood

Part 1. Main Entry:Post a brief analysisof what you have learned from this weeks readings and activities. Start a new thread, and place the header –Name’s Main Entry (e.g.,
Ricks Main Entry)at the top. Within the body of your post, clearly identify each segment of the required response in order to facilitate discussion development.

This weeks great takeaway:What concept or theory did you find most interesting this week? Why?

b.Diagnostic labels:As you read the chapters on childhood, you may notice that the process of diagnosing andlabeling children is changing. Both labels of autismand fetal alcohol syndrome have now been replaced with autism spectrum disorders and fetalalcohol spectrum disorders, respectively.
1) What thoughts to you have on why these changes have occurred?
2) What impactdoes labeling a child with a diagnosis have on that child? What are the advantages, disadvantages, and consequences? Support this element of your discussion by posting an article, blog page, video, or other informational resource.

Part 2. Post Constructive Peer Feedback:In addition to posting your thoughts to the main entry questions, respond to at leastTWO(2) of your classmates entries. In 3 or more sentences, provide constructive feedback. Do you have some additional thoughts on the topic? Share them. When providing your feedback present the logic behind it.

Classmate 1:
a. I was very excited to learn all about lifespan development during the childhood stage since this is the age group that I want to work with as a school counselor. The concepts that I found most interesting this week were found on the page titled “Learning and Intelligence.” I thoroughly enjoyed reading and learning all about the controversies over testing in schools, the different theories of intelligence, and the world of school from different perspectives. It was specifically interesting to read about the politics in the school system and the studies conducted by Lareau and Horvat (2004).
b. I believe that these changes have occurred due to there being many different disorders being discovered under the more broad categories of the autism spectrum disorders and the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. For example, Asperger’s Syndrome falls under the ASD category, but it is a milder form of ASD, and there are more severe cases of ASD as well (Lumen, 2020). It is not fair to associate every child that possesses symptoms of autism as simply just “autistic,” we have developed different disorders and levels of autism and fetal alcohol syndrome to accommodate all of the disorders that may emerge from these diagnoses.
The impacts of labeling a child with these diagnoses can be life-altering. As mentioned in the text, a child’s difficulties can change over time and they may improve or their delays during their school years may not be relevant during adulthood but these labels will still follow them for the rest of their life. Not to mention, it may contribute to low self-esteem and lack of confidence. One article from Pearson Allyn Bacon Prentice Hall discusses the advantages and disadvantages of labeling students with learning disabilities. Some of the advantages, according to Henley et al. (n.d.) include: the development of specialized teaching methods, assessment approaches, and behavioral interventions and federal and local funding for special education programs. Some of the disadvantages are that students are unable to receive these special education services without being labeled, labeling comes with blame and guilt not only for the student but for the parents as well, there is questionable validity and reliability for evaluation across different states putting some students at a disadvantage and causing overrepresentation for some.
Lumen. (2020). Lifespan Development.Lumen Learning.

Developmental Disorders and Learning Disabilities

Henley, M., Ramsey, R. S., and Algozzine, R. F. (n.d.). Labeling and disadvantages of labeling.Pearson Allyn Bacon Prentice Hall.

Classmate 2:

This weeks great takeaway:What concept or theory did you find most interesting this week? Why?

The concept of concrete operational by Piaget discusses the act of children continue to learn through symbolically to extend logical and problem solving. Even though children might not fully understand observation and become nave from realization. The reading uses an example of a child observing her friends as rude which classified that all her friends as rude (Lumen,2020). The child uses inductive reasoning to group her friends with one characteristic of rudeness. However, as children develop, they began to distinguish between factual vs nonfactual concept using deductive reasoning effectively (Lumen, 2020).
1) What thoughts to you have on why these changes have occurred?
I appreciate the change to reduce stigma for children to receive accurate treatment to identify areas of diagnosis. I believe that the DSM 5 has recognized the changes in complex interventions so redefine provides accuracy in treatment planning.
2) I used to work as a case manager where I attended IEP meetings with families to coordinate academic with therapeutic services to promote wraparound approach. The IEP process provide an educational and psychological scope of the childs limitation to perform effectively in the classroom. IEP team use feedback from family history, medical, teachers, case manager/social worker and psychologist to generate a data report to conclude a diagnosis. The important factor is to reduce misdiagnosis, underdiagnosis or overdiagnosis to ensure that the child receive the proper educational placement and in school supports. Ive observed schools that acknowledge the factor domains where the child receives recommended benefits in occupational therapy, counseling, speech, teacher aid support base of the diagnostic. The child was able to receive support from an effective IEP assessment to extend educational value. On the hand, I observed IEP meeting where data wasnt congruent with the childs background which provided misdiagnosis and underdiagnosis. As a result, the parent requested a amend IEP assessment to petition accurate educational planning which delay the implementation of supportive services. I learned when parents dont understand their rights or acknowledge concerns prior to signing the IEP it delays in school supports. I also coordinate families with SPAN educational advocacy program to participate in meetings to ensure parents understand the process.
Lumen Learning (2020).Lifespan development.Retrieved from:


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vcWWuFQAfFI Selectthreeof the following concepts. Describe the concept in detail and provide an example.
The overconfidence phenomenon
The framing effect
The discounting of base-rate information
The availability heuristic
Illusory correlations
Illusions of control
Perceiving order in random sequences
Belief perseverance
Hindsight bias
Self-serving bias
Mood effects on memories and judgments
Ingroup bias


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