Human Growth & Development


1. Reflect on the ways you have been a “secure base” for your clients. If you have not yet had a therapy client, reflect on what youwill do to be a “secure base” for your clients when you begin your work as a therapist. After reflecting, describe what you did do (or will do) behaviorally — what would audio-visual equipment filming you see you do and/or hear you do?
2. Mikulincer & Shaver state that one of the therapy tasks of a good therapist is to “explore and understand how the client currently relates to other people.” Sometimes this results in the therapist helping the client “become aware of previously unrecognizable biases and failed relational strategies.” How does a therapist do this while still maintaining the role of a “secure base” for the client – and environment in which the client feels safe exploring?
3. With what components of the Mikulincer & Shaver article did you align or find helpful? Why? Were there any parts of the article with which you disagreed or did not find to be helpful? Why?
4. David Wallin, author ofAttachment in Psychotherapy (2007), states in an interview that “…if we think about therapy as kind of a new attachment relationship, it’s a new attachment relationship that’s between two adults. but also a relationship between the therapist as parent and the patient as baby…We bring those yearnings, those fears, to adult relationships. I think it’s meaningful to think of that as, in a sense, the baby part of us. When that very young part of us can come alive in the relationship with a therapist, there’s an opportunity for that part of us to change and to develop.” Obviously, the relationship between a therapist and a client is not in reality a relationship between a parent and a child. What really was Wallin talking about in providing this metaphor?
5. Discuss how a therapist’s own attachment pattern might impact the therapeutic process with that therapist’s clients.


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Students much review the TWO case study and answer all questions with a scholarly response using APA and include 2 scholarly references. Answer both case studies on the same document .
The answers must be in your own words with reference to the journal or book where you found the evidence to your answer. Do not copy-paste or use past students’ work as all files submitted in this course are registered and saved in turn it in the program.
Answers must be scholarly and be 3-4 sentences in length with rationale and explanation. “No Straight forward / Simple answer will be accepted”.
All answers to case studies must have the references cited “in the text” for each answer and a minimum of 2 Scholarly References (Journals, books) (No websites) per case Study
DEADLINE: 10/18/22

Copyright 2018 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pagana: Mosbys Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests, 6th Edition

Adolescent With Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

Case Studies

The patient, a 16-year-old high-school football player, was brought to the emergency room in a

coma. His mother said that during the past month he had lost 12 pounds and experienced

excessive thirst associated with voluminous urination that often required voiding several times

during the night. There was a strong family history of diabetes mellitus (DM). The results of

physical examination were essentially negative except for sinus tachycardia and Kussmaul


Studies Results

Serum glucose test (on admission), p. 227 1100 mg/dL (normal: 60120 mg/dL)

Arterial blood gases (ABGs) test (on admission),

p. 98

pH 7.23 (normal: 7.357.45)

PCO2 30 mm Hg (normal: 3545 mm Hg)

HCO2 12 mEq/L (normal: 2226 mEq/L)

Serum osmolality test, p. 339 440 mOsm/kg (normal: 275300


Serum glucose test, p. 227 250 mg/dL (normal: 70115 mg/dL)

2-hour postprandial glucose test (2-hour PPG), p.


500 mg/dL (normal: <140 mg/dL) Glucose tolerance test (GTT), p. 234 Fasting blood glucose 150 mg/dL (normal: 70115 mg/dL) 30 minutes 300 mg/dL (normal: <200 mg/dL) 1 hour 325 mg/dL (normal: <200 mg/dL) 2 hours 390 mg/dL (normal: <140 mg/dL) 3 hours 300 mg/dL (normal: 70115 mg/dL) 4 hours 260 mg/dL (normal: 70115 mg/dL) Glycosylated hemoglobin, p. 238 9% (normal: <7%) Diabetes mellitus autoantibody panel, p. 186 insulin autoantibody Positive titer >1/80

islet cell antibody Positive titer >1/120

glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody Positive titer >1/60

Microalbumin, p. 872 <20 mg/L Diagnostic Analysis The patients symptoms and diagnostic studies were classic for hyperglycemic ketoacidosis associated with DM. The glycosylated hemoglobin showed that he had been hyperglycemic over the last several months. The results of his arterial blood gases (ABGs) test on admission indicated metabolic acidosis with some respiratory compensation. He was treated in the Case Studies Copyright 2018 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 2 emergency room with IV regular insulin and IV fluids; however, before he received any insulin levels, insulin antibodies were obtained and were positive, indicating a degree of insulin resistance. His microalbumin was normal, indicating no evidence of diabetic renal disease, often a late complication of diabetes. During the first 72 hours of hospitalization, the patient was monitored with frequent serum glucose determinations. Insulin was administered according to the results of these studies. His condition was eventually stabilized on 40 units of Humulin N insulin daily. He was converted to an insulin pump and did very well with that. Comprehensive patient instruction regarding self- blood glucose monitoring, insulin administration, diet, exercise, foot care, and recognition of the signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia was given. Critical Thinking Questions 1. Why was this patient in metabolic acidosis? 2. Do you think the patient will eventually be switched to an oral hypoglycemic agent? 3. How would you anticipate this life changing diagnosis is going to affect your patient according to his age and sex? 4. The parents of your patient seem to be confused and not knowing what to do with this diagnoses. What would you recommend to them? Copyright 2018 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Pagana: Mosbys Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests, 6th Edition Esophageal Reflux Case Studies A 45-year-old woman complained of heartburn and frequent regurgitation of sour material into her mouth. Often while sleeping, she would be awakened by a severe cough. The results of her physical examination were negative. Studies Results Routine laboratory studies Negative Barium swallow (BS), p. 941 Hiatal hernia Esophageal function studies (EFS), p. 624 Lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure 4 mm Hg (normal: 1020 mm Hg) Acid reflux Positive in all positions (normal: negative) Acid clearing Cleared to pH 5 after 20 swallows (normal: <10 swallows) Swallowing waves Normal amplitude and normal progression Bernstein test Positive for pain (normal: negative) Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), p. 547 Reddened, hyperemic, esophageal mucosa Gastric scan, p. 743 Reflux of gastric contents to the lungs Swallowing function, p. 1014 No aspiration during swallowing Diagnostic Analysis The barium swallow indicated a hiatal hernia. Although many patients with a hiatal hernia have no reflux, this patients symptoms of reflux necessitated esophageal function studies. She was found to have a hypotensive LES pressure along with severe acid reflux into her esophagus. The abnormal acid clearing and the positive Bernstein test result indicated esophagitis caused by severe reflux. The esophagitis was directly visualized during esophagoscopy. Her coughing and shortness of breath at night were caused by aspiration of gastric contents while sleeping. This was demonstrated by the gastric nuclear scan. When awake, she did not aspirate, as evident during the swallowing function study. The patient was prescribed esomeprazole (Nexium). She was told to avoid the use of tobacco and caffeine. Her diet was limited to small, frequent, bland feedings. She was instructed to sleep with the head of her bed elevated at night. Because she had only minimal relief of her symptoms after 6 weeks of medical management, she underwent a laparoscopic surgical antireflux procedure. She had no further symptoms. Critical Thinking Questions 1. Why would the patient be instructed to avoid tobacco and caffeine? 2. Why did the physician recommend 6 weeks of medical management? Case Studies Copyright 2018 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 2 3. How do antacid medication work in patients with gastroesophageal reflux? 4. What would you approach the situation, if your patient decided not to take the medication and asked you for an alternative medicine approach?


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  2 Student responses to discussion questions must be substantive, that is, thoughtful and analytical. Be organized in your thoughts and ideas. Incorporate correlations with the assigned readings or topics. Stay

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