osteology research paper (anthropology)


600-650words (approximately 3 pages)


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ANTH-12 Osteology Research Assignment/Essay

Prompt: Osteology is the study of the structure and function of the skeleton and bony
structures. Since hominin are only discovered as fossilized remains, the study of their
bones and skeletons is very important for our understanding of human evolution! For this
assignment, each student will write a short research paper on a hominin osteological
feature (i.e. a bone or skeletal structure) of their choice. Students should pick a feature
that is both interesting to them and important for our evolution. Look for skeletal features
that aid in things like locomotion, bipedalism, and tool making etc. In the paper, students
should describe the bone or skeletal trait in detail and explain how and why it is important
to human evolution. Students may also want to include a discussion of key fossil hominin
finds that feature their chosen subject.

In addition, students are expected to include a detailed hand drawing of their chosen
osteology feature to accompany their research paper. This drawing can be embedded in
the submitted word document or included as a separate upload. A minimum of 3-4
scholarly references are required; non-academic sources are categorically not
appropriate references. All references should be parenthetically cited and included in a
works cited page at the end.

Example of a topic: hyoid bone, calcaneus, non-opposable hallux, foot arch (tarsal and
metatarsal bones), pelvis, knee joints, femur, vertebral column, thumb metacarpal,
dentition/molars, wrist bones, clavicle, finger phalanges, hip joints, sagittal crest, bone
density, etc.

Due: Saturday, April 10th by 11:59pm PT.
Submission: Online on Canvas

About 3 pages (approximately 600-650 words, not including bibliography page)
Works Cited Page/Bibliography (3-4 citations)
Drawing of bone (can be embedded in word document)
Total Points: 20 points

How to structure an essay:
Thesis statement (A thesis statement is composed on three parts: context, subject and
Body Paragraphs

How to Research: Website based internet sources are not a legitimate basis of
information for this paper. Instead, try these sources:
SJSU Library: https://libguides.sjsu.edu/sb.php?subject_id=2686
Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com

Example search: human evolution hyoid bone


Summative Assessment: Part C: Strategic Marketing Plan

Complete Part C of the Strategic Marketing Plan.
Submit your assignment.

MKT/574 v1
Strategic Marketing Plan
MKT/574 v1
Page 2 of 2

Strategic Marketing Plan
Part A: Environmental Analysis and SWOT Analysis
(Due in Wk 2)
Company Description

Describe the company you are designing the plan for. Include:

Mission Statement
Vision Statement
Product line description
Company information, such as the size of the company
Environmental Analysis

Analyze the forces that affect the company and marketing efforts.

Competitive Forces

Analyze the companys key competitors. You may choose to use a BCG Matrix or attribute checklist to compare your company against its competitors. Describe any strategic moves the competition has recently made. Estimate your market share. Identify key competitive advantages against your competitors.

Economic Forces

Analyze the economic environment in the areas affecting your business. Consider differences within your industry and the economic impact on suppliers.

Political Forces

Analyze relevant political forces. Examples may include an election year or a law to drastically reduce or eliminate plastic waste in your county.

Legal, Regulatory, and Ethical Issues

Analyze the legal, regulatory, and ethical issues that may affect your business. Considerations may include local laws such as a ban on the use of plastic bags, the ability to post billboards, or a possible increased regulation on direct mail.

Technological Forces

Analyze whether your company will be affected by emerging technologies or trends in hardware and software industries

Social Forces

Analyze social trends and how they may affect your business. Considerations may include if your business will be affected by demographic trends, a growing dependence on computers, or whether interest in your product might be affected by growing preferences in the way things are done or changing social values.

Current Target Markets

Define the companys current target markets. Describe the demographic, geographic, psychographic, and product usage of these targets.

Review Current Marketing

Review the companys current marketing tactics. Consider how people find out about the product, how they get information about the product or service, what might be involved in the buying process, and what money is available for marketing. If your company is a start-up, describe your competitors current marketing.

SWOT Analysis

Assess your companys strengths, weaknesses, threats, opportunities, and then evaluate how to address these in your marketing plan.


Assess your companys competitive advantage. Consider core competencies, assets, location, practices, etc. that are distinct in the way the organization meets the needs of its customers.


Assess what limits the company may have in its current marketing strategy. Consider if there is a company weakness that needs to be addressed through Public Relations or Marketing.


Assess the opportunities you see based on trends or environmental conditions.


Assess the threats or limitations that may interfere with the companys ability to meet its objectives or interfere with marketing plans.

Strengths to Opportunities & Converting Weaknesses and Threats

Convert weaknesses and threats to strengths, then strengths to opportunities in the marketing plan. Consider the implications for addressing supplier relationships, implementing new technologies, or changing the product line or addressing new markets.

Marketing Objectives

Establish marketing objectives based on the results from the SWOT analysis. Marketing objectives must align with corporate objectives, modified by the companys resources. Objectives should include a date for the completion of the objective and the way in which success will be measured. For example: The company will expand its marketing efforts to include a new market segment of 21- to 29-year-olds. This will entail the development of a customized product by June 2020 that will address the specific psychographic and technological needs of this age group. This strategy is expected to attain a 20% growth in overall sales by January 2020. Customer loyalty (willingness to recommend the product) will increase by 30%.

Part B: Marketing Data Analysis
(Due in Wk 4)
Internal Data

Evaluate internal sources of information available to you inside the organization and what information you will receive from each source. Identify 3-6 sources of internal data. Insert or remove rows as needed.


What it Measures


Potential Usage

Example: Sales data

Monthly sales by specific product

Average sales that month in US dollars for each of 10 products. Data can be segmented by business and consumer markets.

Can be used for trend analysis, projections, and to measure effectiveness of promotions.

Secondary Data

Evaluate secondary data sources and the specific information you need from each source. Insert or remove rows as needed.


What it Measures


Potential Usage

Example: U.S. Census Bureau

Income over the last 4 years by family structure

Household structures with the highest income capacity

Market Share Analysis
Customer Segments

Primary Data

Evaluate primary data needs to create and evaluate the marketing plan. Insert or remove rows as needed.


What it Measures


Potential Usage

Example: Focus group

Product usage, motives, identify group level satisfaction, decision process, etc.


Identify different reactions of market segments to product. Identify marketing opportunities, product/service flaws and opportunities

Customer Relationship Management

Establish customer touchpoints and develop appropriate CRM events for customer acquisition, retention, and profitability. Insert or remove rows as needed.

CRM Touchpoint

Purpose & CRM Objective


Potential Data Usage

Example: Customer profile information on website

Starts the account for visitors: name, geography, email address (Customer acquisition)

Presale: geographic location; customer id, source of reference
Email address
Post sales: address, product purchased, quantity, price.

Track new and returning customer counts, total period purchases by customer ID, geographic sales data. Can be used for loyalty rewards, retention, and targeted marketing.

Part C: Market Strategy, Marketing Channels, Implementation, and Monitoring

(Due in Wk 6)
New Customer Segments

Determine any new customer segments for your strategy and describe how you will provide value to each segment.

Marketing Mix for New Customer Segments

Determine adaptions for each new customer segment.

Traditional Promotion
Online Promotion
Marketing Implementation

Create the implementation for your marketing plan. Describe how you will organize and implement the plan, such as whether it will be organized by market, geography, and who is responsible for marketing decisions.

Marketing Communication Channels

Evaluate the marketing communication channels you will use to reach selected audiences. Include Internet and traditional communication channels to convey key messages. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of each channel you select. Insert or remove rows as needed.


Target Market



Example: Direct mail

Middle class residential

Can include coupons

Expense and low return rate for given product

Strategic Actions

Develop specific activities required to implement the marketing plan. Identify the person or role who will be responsible for each action, when it will be complete, and what standard or metric indicate that the activity is complete. Insert or remove rows as needed.


Date for Completion

Person/Role Responsible


Example: Design flyer for direct mail campaign


J. Smith, graphic designer

Approval by senior marketing team and legal


Develop the measurement to identify how you know you have been successful for each strategic action. Specify the measures to track performance against goals. Identify standard reports from your online and traditional marketing efforts. Insert or remove rows as needed.



Person Responsible


Example: Direct mail flyer

1100 new inquiries

Western regional manager

500 new inquiries first month of campaign

Copyright 2020 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
Copyright 2020 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.

image1.png MKT/574 v1
Strategic Marketing Plan
MKT/574 v1
Page 3 of 10

Strategic Marketing Plan
Part A: Environmental Analysis and SWOT Analysis
(Due in Wk 2)
Company Description
For the environmental and SWOT analysis, I selected BPI Sports LLC before making a strategic marketing plan. It is based in the United States, Hollywood, Florida. The line of products this company works on is nutritional supplements. It not only develops and formulates but also works on marketing nutritional supplements. Its mission is to deliver the highest quality nutritional supplements for muscle gain and bodybuilding to its consumers, which can optimally help them reach their fitness goals (Directory, 2021). The vision statement is based on the phrase “make a difference.” They have the vision to formulate the best product to inspire and implement changes in the human physique. The company was established in 2010. It operates with 51 to 200 employees.
Environmental Analysis
Competitive Forces
The industry of nutritional supplements, whether it involves mineral/vitamin supplements or protein supplements, is on the rise and incrementing at the rate of 7.1%. This fact has attracted a lot of developers to establish their companies in the market, which has led to an increase in the competition. The main component to survive this completion is to gain the customers’ loyalty. This can only be achieved through time. As people become more comfortable and dependent on a specific nutritional supplement, they tend to stay with the same brand instead of choosing another one. FitFlex Company is the biggest competitor of BPI sports in the nutritional supplement industry. BPI Sports is spending more resources to gain customer loyalty which is a beneficial factor as it provides an edge over FitFlex Company.
Economic Forces
Economic issues have rendered the sales low, which has led to a low-profit margin for BPI sports. This economic issue was due to the factor of quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Political Forces
During the year 2016, elections were scheduled. It was predicted that the inflation rate would reach 1.7% (The Elections Effect on Expected Inflation, n.d.). This increment in inflation caused a rise in the cost of manufacturing. Spending more revenue on manufacturing led to narrow profit margins.
Legal, Regulatory, and Ethical Issues
The food and drug administration (FDA) is a regulatory body that monitors the standards of nutritional supplements. It checks not only the manufacturing process but also the ingredients that are added to the supplements. Any issue, whether it is regulatory or ethical, can lead to serious legal charges.
Technological Forces
The technological issues faced by the company in the past have already been resolved involving the use of advanced formulation machinery in the developmental process. For online fitness programs, relevant technical support has also been established to face the pandemic-related issues.
Social Forces
The social trend of relying on computers to attain good fitness levels during the time of quarantine in the COVID-19 pandemic has increased the involvement of consumers in this company.
Current Target Markets
The target market comprises people who are fitness enthusiasts, obese people, sportsmen, and bodybuilders. The main mode of marketing has shifted to online as it is more accessible to customers.
Review Current Marketing
The current marketing involves marketing sites on social media such as Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter. Only 20% of the total revenue is utilized in the marketing area.
SWOT Analysis
The main strength of this company is its customer loyalty due to its high quality of nutritional supplements. It also provides online access to its customers, making it convenient for them.
Lack of FDA approval certification because less revenue is spent on the research about the supplement. The brand is known on a small scale only.
The development of new products with enhanced features can be made possible by using technological advancements and advertising the new products on different platforms. Policy formulation can also help in the reduction of manufacturing costs.
Unsatisfied customers and how they spread bad word about the product and the new competitors entering the supplement industry.
Strengths to Opportunities & Converting Weaknesses and Threats
To gain the approval certification from the FDA, some of the revenue should be contributed to the research of the supplements. With the development of new products and FDA certification, the brand image can be improved, and with new marketing sites for promotion, more customers will be attracted to it.
Marketing Objectives
The marketing objective of BPI sports is to develop new products with more efficacy so that with better outcomes, more customers can be attracted, and the loyalty of the previous customers can be improved. It is also projected that with the launch of new products with low cost, the profit margin will increase by 10%.


Directory, D. B. (2021). Bpi Sports, LLC. Retrieved from

The Elections Effect on Expected Inflation. (n.d.). Elections Effect Expected Inflation. Retrieved September 20, 2022, from

Copyright 2020 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
Copyright 2020 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.



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