Process Improvement Replies


Each reply must be a minimum of 200 words and include at least 2 scholarly resources.
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Compare/contrast the findings of others with your research.
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Key Concept Explanation
Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is a system designed to provide opportunities for organizations to enhance product quality and reduce defects while increasing the firms profits and satisfying consumers demands (Omoush, 2020). LSS focuses on removing deficiencies through ameliorating the production process contingent on data, evaluation, and knowledge to improve the quality of the product. The fundamental aspect of LSS is finding the shortcomings in the process and eliminating them to achieve the highest level of quality within the shortest amount of time at a minimum cost. LSS uses the Six Sigma DMAIC process (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control). The Lean aspect of LSS looks for elements to eliminate waste in the process of the production process while implementing the DMAIC principles. There are four key aspects that LSS looks for in the elimination process: imperfections, overproduction, waiting time, and movement. The imperfections refer to the wasteful steps in the process that are not needed to make a product, and overproduction is the organization makes more products than demand for it. These aspects can be costly to organizations when taking unnecessary extra steps and producing more products than needed. Waiting time is the downtime from going from one stage of the production process to the next. Cutting waiting time down will reduce costs and increase production output. Movement refers to the equipment or aspects used in the production process to determine a task or the movement in creating the product. LSS will look for ways to remove unnecessary movement to make the process smoother and faster.
Meredith and Shafer (2020) explain that the fundamental goal of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is to eliminate as much waste as possible in production to achieve more with fewer resources being used while maintaining or increasing the quality of the product. LSS has seven categories that are considered waste: overproduction, inventory, waiting, unnecessary transport, unnecessary processing, unnecessary human motions, and defects. Furthermore, there is not a one-size-fits-all formula that can be used in every organization, but each organization has to discover how LSS will work within their organization. Omoush (2020) states that the methods of LSS can assist employees in gaining a better understanding of how to improve their job and resolve possible issues they might encounter at work. Alnadi and McLaughlin (2021) make a connection that when the executive leadership team implements LSS methods in the organizations, the success of LSS hinges on the six behavior aspects of the leadership team of the organization: communication, creating a culture of continuous improvement, coaching and developing employees, creating vision and aligning goals, motivating employees, and empowering employees.
Furthermore, Patel & Patel (2021) declares that only implementing Six Sigma lacks the ability to eliminate all waste in the production process, and the Lean method has the inability to regulate the production process with statistical work and reduce dissimilarities from the procedure. Additionally, Costa et al. (2021) point out that when Lean and Six Sigma were combined, the primary purpose was to maximize stakeholder value. As a result, LSS could increase consumer satisfaction, reduce production, and increase product profits and quality. Furthermore, the powerful combination of Lean and Six Sigma offered organizations with more tools at their disposal to handle a wider range and variety of problems. As a result, it could be more effective in solving them. Lastly, Panayiotou et al. (2022) contribute to the literature on LSS that the method positively impacts environmental and economic sustainability, decreases cycle time and lead time, increases morale within organizations, and is highly effective with small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).
Article Summary
This article aims to examine the impact of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) on product quality and the production process by focusing on four aspects: imperfections, overproduction, waiting time, and movement. First, LSS looks for imperfections in the production process and product quality to reduce waste and defects. Any defects in the product quality can affect consumers’ satisfaction with the product. Discovering defects in the product in the production process can require more materials and more time spent on fixing the product. Thus, LSS looks for ways to eliminate defects to reduce waste and help organizations to maximize revenue. Overproduction is where the organization produces more output on their products at a given time than what is demanded to make for their customers. Implementing LSS will help devise a plan to generate the required amount of product to meet consumers’ demands without having a surplus of leftover products. The third aspect is waiting time. LSS will observe the production process to see if there are any delays in the production process to eliminate the waiting process, enhance the production process more effectively and increase the output. The fourth component in the article looks at movement, an unnecessary step or action in the production process, and LSS removes it from the process. These four categories are ways that LSS will examine the production process that will make it more efficient, increase customer satisfaction, reduce cost and increase profit for the organization. The article’s findings discover that LSS positively impacts consistency products when focusing on minimizing imperfections and overproduction. Waiting time and movement did not impact the consistency of products. However, when LSS is implemented to reduce overproduction, blemishes, wait time, and movements, it positively impacts product quality in the production process.
Biblical Integration
The primary objective of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is to improve a process to make it more effective and efficient. The method is a constant state of looking for ways to improve a system or process to make it ameliorate and reduce or eliminate waste. The state of improvement is a biblical principle. Proverbs 27:17 states, Iron sharpens iron, and one man sharpens another (English Standard Version, 2001/2017). This passage speaks about how individuals need another person to help them to improve and grow in life. Wise people should question, encourage, coach, and challenge each other. Christians need to work with other Christians to grow and develop in life. Similarly, the philosophy of LSS betters an organization by questioning and challenging the process. The leaders encourage and coach the employees on using the LSS method to improve the organization. LSS requires collaboration throughout the organization to successfully achieve the goal of improving the organization. Another aspect of LSS is the planning stage. Prior to employing the principles of LSS, the executive team needs a strategic plan for the best ways to utilize the methods of LSS within the organization. Proverbs 15:22 states, Without counsel plans fail, but with many advisers they succeed (English Standard Version, 2001/2017). Just like organizations need multiple people to cultivate the plan to apply LSS methods to create success and improve the organization, Christians need to seek people to be coaches, mentors, and counselors who can speak into their lives. Additionally, advisors can help individuals see flaws and defects in their plans to succeed. Matthew 7:17-18 states, So, every healthy tree bears good fruit, but the diseased tree bears bad fruit. A healthy tree cannot bear bad fruit, nor can a diseased tree bear good fruit (English Standard Version, 2001/2017). Organizations know that good processes, like LSS, will produce good outcomes, whereas poor systems will create bad outcomes. LSS finds and addresses the root causes of inferior quality to improve it to make it better. Similarly, Matthew 7:17-18 teaches Christians to have excellent character, ethics, and integrity to produce good works and quality of life. Poor morality, ethics, and integrity will make a poor quality of life. Thus, Christians must follow the practices of living godly lives to improve their quality of life.
Lean Six Sigma (LSS) plays a significant role in any organization to enhance process efficiency by eliminating waste, reducing defects, improving consumer satisfaction, and boosting profits. Organizations would want to have multiple people examining the process that needs restructuring to identify the flaws in the system to understand what is working and what is not. The team analyzing the process will want to examine aspects such as overproduction, inventory, waiting time, unnecessary transportation, unnecessary processing, unnecessary movement, and defects. Once the team figures out what needs to be eliminated, revamped, and kept in the process, the team can devise a strategy for implementing the changes. Additionally, the leaders in the organization will want to train and develop their team members in how to use and apply LSS and provide consistent support and encouragement in using the methods of LSS because the help of the leadership team maximizes the efforts of applying LSS methods to be successful. Once the organization starts applying LSS to the different systems and procedures, the organization can see the benefits of customer satisfaction and revenue increase, cost and investment savings, employee and production improvement, and revealing problems to have the opportunity to fix them.
Annotated Bibliography
Alnadi, M., & McLaughlin, P. (2021). Critical success factors of lean six sigma from leaders perspective.International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, 12(5), 1073-1088.
Links to an external site.

This article aims to explore the critical success factors of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) in relationship to leadership behaviors that effectively enable the application of LSS in organizations by analyzing previous literature on the subject. The findings in this article state that there are seven critical factors in the behavior of leaders to utilize LSS in an organization successfully. Firstly, leaders are influential when communicating information clearly and listening to their teams because clear communication builds trust and knowledge. Additionally, leaders want to instill two-way communication between them and their team because it will enhance the flow of information throughout the organization and increase understanding. Secondly, leaders want to cultivate a culture of continuous improvement with employees to empower employees to keep the momentum for progress and to reduce waste. Thirdly, leaders want to coach and develop employees on the practice of LSS so that the employees are fully equipped to implement the tools of LSS. Fourthly, Leaders need to provide vision and align goals of the rationale of why LSS is being used with their employees so that the employees understand why and how LSS will accomplish the organization’s goals. Fifthly, leaders will want to motivate the employees to inspire them to achieve the organization’s common goal using LSS. Sixthly, leaders will want to empower the employees to be more involved, make decisions, and take action in implementing the tools of LSS. Lastly, leaders need to be involved, committed, and support the implementation of LSS.
Costa, L. B. M., Godinho Filho, M., Fredendall, L. D., & Devs Ganga, G. M. (2021). Lean six sigma in the food industry: Construct development and measurement validation.International Journal of Production Economics, 231, 107843.
Links to an external site.

This article explores how Lean Six Sigma (LSS) helps organizations identify consumer demands, removes waste, and diminishes variability. The article goes into depth to explain how LSS is an amalgamation of Six Sigma systematic problem-solving utilizing statistical methods with the Lean aspect of concentrating on flow development. Six Sigma uses a technique known as DMACI (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control). This system follows the process of determining the goals of the aspect that needs improvement; measuring how the current system is being used; analyzing the current system to eliminate any unnecessary elements in the design, taking steps to improve the system; and lastly, controlling the new approach. The article states the main objective of Lean is to eliminate waste by simultaneously decreasing the supplier, customer, and internal variability. Thus, LSS combines both methodologies Six Sigma and Lean Philosophy into one method.
Omoush, M. M. (2020). Lean six sigma effect on the quality of the products in Jordanian food companies: The moderating role of the manufacturing process.International Review of Management and Marketing, 10(6), 1-12.
Links to an external site.

The primary goal of this article is to examine the influence of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) and the quality of the product and manufacturing procedure. The article looks at LSS in how it reduces waste in making products in the production process concerning defects, overproduction, motion, and waiting time to maintain and improve the quality of products in the production process. LSS looks at products that were made with imperfections and analyses ways to dimmish ways from products to have defects. LSS helps reduce overproduction by assisting the organization to produce the number of products it needs to make to satisfy consumers requests without having too much or any surplus. LSS finds ways to minimize wait times in product production; such elements that can increase wait times are lack of planning, lack of employee experience, and poor communication between employees. LSS can help see issues causing wait times in production so that the problem can quickly be handled and improved to reduce wait times. LSS can enhance the moment of the process of creating the product by improving planning equipment or tasks that can streamline the production process. Thus, LSS has an opportunity to improve products and decrease defects in products that can satisfy consumers’ demands and increase the firms profits.
Panayiotou, N. A., Stergiou, K. E., & Panagiotou, N. (2022). Using lean six sigma in small and medium-sized enterprises for low-cost/high-effect improvement initiatives: A case study.The International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 39(5), 1104-1132.
Links to an external site.

This article explores the implementation process of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to cognize the benefits of LSS in its application stages and to pinpoint the crucial factors of LSS when integrated by SMEs. The findings in this article show that the implementation of LSS in the production process has a positive impact on delayed orders that there was a 66% improvement. Thus, LSS helps with cutting down on waiting time. Another finding was a 33% reduction in the average time of stay of an order. Furthermore, with the effectiveness of LSS increasing the output of the production process of getting products to consumers, it helped reduce the cost of production by 30% and a reduction of overtime of employees by 80%. Furthermore, with the faster processing time of getting products to consumers, there was an increase in the quality of products and customer satisfaction and a reduction in customer complaints.
Patel, A. S., & Patel, K. M. (2021). Critical review of literature on lean six sigma methodology.International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, 12(3), 627-674.
Links to an external site.

This article’s goal was to extensively examine the literature on Lean Six Sigma (LSS) methodology to cultivate a preliminary understanding of the LSS technique since its inception. The study is broken into two sections. The first part of the study looks at Six Sigma and Lean Philosophy individually, and the second part focuses on combining the two different methods of forming LSS. The key findings saw that with the adaption of LSS, there was massive growth in the manufacturing, healthcare, and higher education industries utilizing the methods of LSS to help with continuous improvement with these organizations. Other findings in the study saw growth in integrating LSS with other practices such as sustainability and environmental. Lastly, the article saw that the major critical success factors for LSS were: the commitment, involvement, and support of the executive leadership team; educating and training the workforce in how to use and apply LSS methods; and having a business strategy on how to implement LSS. Conversely, the factors that harm the implementation of LSS are the absence of understanding of how to use LSS, shortage of resources, lack of executive leadership support, opposition to change, and deficiency of efficient training.

Alnadi, M., & McLaughlin, P. (2021). Critical success factors of lean six sigma from leaders perspective.International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, 12(5), 1073-1088.
Links to an external site.

Costa, L. B. M., Godinho Filho, M., Fredendall, L. D., & Devs Ganga, G. M. (2021). Lean six sigma in the food industry: Construct development and measurement validation.International Journal of Production Economics, 231, 107843.
Links to an external site.

English Standard Version. (2017). Crossway. (Original work published 2001).
Meredith, J. R., & Shafer, S. M. (2020).Operations and supply chain management for MBAs(7th ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Omoush, M. M. (2020). Lean six sigma effect on the quality of the products in Jordanian food companies: The moderating role of the manufacturing process.International Review of Management and Marketing, 10(6), 1-12.
Links to an external site.

Panayiotou, N. A., Stergiou, K. E., & Panagiotou, N. (2022). Using lean six sigma in small and medium-sized enterprises for low-cost/high-effect improvement initiatives: A case study.The International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 39(5), 1104-1132.
Links to an external site.

Patel, A. S., & Patel, K. M. (2021). Critical review of literature on lean six sigma methodology.International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, 12(3), 627-674. Key topic explanation: Agile project management
Agile project management (APM) involves delivering a project through phases that team management employs to support a productivity framework of incremental and continuous progress despite organizational or business setup changes. Agile project management emerged from software development like XP, Cristal, Scrum, and morewhich are methodologies of programming based on adaptability to changes to boost the success of a project (Ozkan & Mishra, 2019). APM aims to minimize risks at the execution by developing software iterations with a lifespan of between one to four weeks (Ozkan & Mishra, 2019). Each part of the project encompasses all tasks necessary to accommodate new changes and functionalities. As a result, I am interested in this topic because of how it can be applied in completing projects through phases.
Comparison of Research
With APM, a project is completed in stages that last from one to four weeks (Meredith & Shafer, 2020, p. 67). This was also elaborated in all of the other literatures in this discussion. Team members are given tasks to perform during these stages (Meredith & Shafter, 2020). APM gained popularity in the software industry and is slowly extending into other domains. The application of APM began in the 1990s when software development teams applied it to improve the programming processes for improved adaptability (Hidalgo, 2019). The adoption of the APM method was motivated by the weakness of popular plan-based software like the waterfall, which was often criticized for being rigid to change (Meredith & Shafer, 2020). The APM emphasized teamwork since it focused on the social aspects of software development and channeling co-creation between programmers in self-organized teams (Hidalgo, 2019). Using agile methodology in software development lowers the costs, leads to better quality, productivity and higher business satisfaction (Ozkan & Mishra, 2019). Several APM practices include simple communication tools, project vision, iterative planning, and frequent project plan application while updating and monitoring results. Over the years, APM has extended beyond software to other organizational contexts (Meredith & Shafer, 2020). The technique has been employed in product development, construction projects, and management of projects in libraries, educational projects, and innovation processes.
The application of APM in these spheres focuses on developing sprint projects that sync with the scrum methodology (Pirro, 2019). However, to track the effectiveness of the project, the adoption of other methods, such as the Kanban board, is crucial for testing practicality and tracking implementation (Pirro, 2019). The process can also entail splitting the work, sprint planning, sprint execution, and weekly scrum to monitor every progress (Pirro, 2019). Buganova and Simickova (2019) stated that in a competitive environment, only those who can manage the risks and realize the project more efficiently will succeed. They were able to show that the APM can reduce risks in projects (Buganova & Simickova, 2019). Loiro et al (2019) also stated that it is essential that teams have a good communication, motivation and concern about quality and client satisfaction. By using the APM this can make the team communicate and perform difficult tasks and achieve goals (Loiro et al., 2019).
Article Summary
Hidalgo (2019) performed a case study exploring the adoption of APM in distributing research initiatives, especially the appropriation of the scrum framework as a coordination and communication solution for management of collaborative interdisciplinary projects (p.22). The scrum framework is a specific set of agile principles and practices for self-organizing cross-functional teams in software development projects (Hidalgo, et al., 2019, para.1). The research addressed the extent to which primary principles employed in the scrum framework can create positive dynamics and efficiency in collaboration and coordination of tasks when researching a particular process. The article examined responses from 17 researchers, used participant observations, and used analysis of online activity (Hidalgo et al., 2019). Using these methods they presented a case study on the practices in a distributed research center designed to evaluate public policies. Their results showed that, agile methods and principles for interdisciplinary collaboration requires a high degree of flexibility and a learn-by-doing approach (Hidalgo et al., 2019, para.1).
The article first discussed the team-based collaboration and why it is important in organizations in research projects. The article then discussed the APM method and its origins in software development such as Scrum. They further discuss how APM is also breaking into other domains (construction, education, and venture capital). The article then discussed the scrum framework. The scrum methodology facilitates the coordinated activity of programmers who break their work into small tasks called sprints, tracking progress and re-planning in meetings in order to develop products incrementally (Hidalgo et al., 2019, p.5). The author further discussed the key characteristics to develop successful innovative products consisted of; stability, self-organizing teams, overlapping development phases, multi-learning, subtle control and organizational transfer of learning (Hidalgo et al., 2019).The article then uses these characteristics to show how it is used in the scrum framework.
This article also highlighted the challenges of APM adoption in a distributed research organization setup. These include the need for balance, online and offline content, trust in relationships, and types of research, among many others. Thus from the observation, APM is suitable for organizations that work in changing and complex settings with a capacity for flexibility. However, the process requires a high level of flexibility, although it is easy to implement and transfer in an organization.
Biblical Integration
Like the agile model, the Bible directs in 1stCorinthians 14:40that everything should be done in a fitting and orderly manner (King James Bible, 1611/2017). This is because to achieve something, there is a high level of order required around the family. This is also needed in the APM with order and stages being needed to complete the project. In addition,Mathew 6:1states take heed that ye do not your alms before men, to be seen of them: otherwise ye have no reward of your Father which is in heaven (King James Bible, 1611/2017). This indicates that an individual who practices righteousness to be seen by other people does not have any reward. This can be integrated with APM by doing a good job on the project and not expecting much in return other than an accomplished project. The last verse 1stJohn 3:5states, Jesus answered, verily, I say unto thee, except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God (King James Bible, 1611/2017). This indicates that Jesus dies to wash our sins, and as a result, this can apply to the model. These three entail the strength to lead a nation. In APM this indicates to be ethical and righteous in our projects with the goal of a completed project for the organization and not just ones own benefit.
Application of APM
Agile project management has wide applications in real-world business. In this discussion examples were given of APM being used in technology, education and construction. Agile manufacturing is intended to increase the speed at which employees in an organization perform tasks and achieve their goals. In a construction project each stage would need to be completed and verified quality work was performed before the next stage began. Construction projects usually have a planning phase, a design phase, the construction phase, and a testing phase which leads to the completion. During these construction phases there are multiple changes/improvements and workers working simultaneously on different subprojects. Having these stages in place for construction projects allows the job to be followed closely and is performed faster.
With the increasing globalization in the world and marketing becoming unstable, finding ways to meet customer requirements is necessary. Agile productivity entails responsiveness and flexibility while incorporating adaptive capability. Employees can understand the various methods involved in the production system and can be critiqued on each stage. The method provides solutions to customer needs by improving efficiency and closely engaging them in production. Thus, agile manufacturing is highly suited to responding to unpredictability and complexity in different environments. It depends on the interaction of several companieshence it is a competitive advantage.
Annotated Bibliography
Buganov, K., & imkov, J. (2019). Risk management in traditional and agile project management.
Transportation Research Procedia,
40, 986-993.
Links to an external site.

The source plays a crucial role in helping us understand the various traditional methods of project management and the modern ways of using the agile project management model. In addition, it highlights what has stimulated the effort of managers to look for alternative project management procedures that will stimulate their effort. Thus, the effort to ensure that their supply of raw materials is not compromised must maintain a constant level of different production methods. The source also defines what agile project management entails giving a precise meaning for someone who might be looking to understand what APM is and how to apply it to streamline their project.
Hidalgo, E. S. (2019). Adapting the scrum framework for agile project management in science: a case study of a distributed research initiative.
5(3), e01447.
Links to an external site.

This source is crucial because it demonstrates the application of agile project management to various settings in an organization. It begins by highlighting the importance of the adaptation of team collaboration in research. Several authors agree that the publication of higher levels of communication tends to adopt communication for knowledge-intensive organizations which can incorporate APM. The article defines agile project management as a method that prevents an attempt to change anything in the organization. The source also provides the background of how agile constitutes adaptive planning, continuous improvement, and frequent consultations with various project stakeholders, which can help answer a fundamental question about the APM project.
Loiro, C., Castro, H., vila, P., Cruz-Cunha, M. M., Putnik, G. D., & Ferreira, L. (2019). Agile project management: A communicational workflow proposal.
Procedia Computer Science,
164, 485-490.
Links to an external site.

This source entails how embracing agility creates change in an organization so that individuals involved in management can understand the process of project development. In addition, it further analyzes the benefits of efficient communication, motivation about any client, and the application of agile project management by using it in the manufacturing process. This is useful when understanding what is expected of someone at an event in a new place they have never been to and navigating new events like a professional. The source also defines the various roles of agile project management, such as the product owner, team leader, stakeholders, supporting cast, and team members.
zkan, D., & Mishra, A. (2019). Agile Project Management Tools: A Brief Comparative View.
Cybernetics and Information Technologies,
19(4), 17-25.
Links to an external site.

This source begins by highlighting how agile methodologies are becoming popular in high-end organizations and the much these organizations are willing to pay to have a comprehensive project completed for them. This article therefore shows different uses of APM. It goes further by specializing that most companies rely on agile project management to produce quality performance in individuals to ensure that they are different from the outside world. Here the primary goal of APM is to streamline operations from up while moving downwards. It defines the types of agile project management tools: Jira, Agilo, scam, pivotal tracker, and spiral team to inflectra. Thus these dynamics can help an organization decide whether they come to your house.
Pirro, L. (2019). How agile project management can work for your research. Nature, 7 (27).
Links to an external site.

From this source, it is evident that agile project management can be applied to dev



ACCT 632

Exposure Draft/Recent Standard Presentation Assignment Instructions

Use one of the links found on the
Exposure Draft/Recent Standard Presentation Assignment page
under Exposure Draft/Recent Standard Presentation Resources to select a current exposure draft for your presentation. Then, search for journal articles in professional, peer-reviewed accounting and business journals that relate to the selected current exposure draft. Use the electronic databases provided by the Liberty University Library and other sources.

Your PowerPoint presentation must contain the following information:
1. Summarize the main points of the current exposure draft.
2. Compare/contrast with current theory/standards.
3. Compare and contrast U.S. GAAP and IFRS in respect to the exposure draft topic.
4. Research the need for the new standard/amendment (include pros and cons).
5. Evaluate the exposure drafts provisions in light of the conceptual framework (include qualitative characteristics of useful information).
6. Develop a logical, well-articulated response to the exposure draft (for or against). Propose changes/corrections that you feel are needed.
The presentation must have an attractive layout. Each slide must present the information using clear, concise bullet points as well as utilize the notes section. Items to include are outlined as follows:
Minimum of 7 slides, and a reference slide must be included in the presentation
APA Format
At least 5 citations; in addition, you will provide a biblical application for the subject matter of the case.
Your sources should be recent, peer-reviewed articles, relevant to the content/topic. Acceptable sources include peer-reviewed journal articles, FASB Codification, the textbook, and the Bible.

Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool. Failure to cite all sources used in your presentation or Plagiarism of any kind will result in a grade of 0. Plagiarism occurs when you either include the words of others without properly attributing the source or cut and paste from a source directly into a presentation without including quotation marks and source attribution.


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