Research Paper an Presentation

  

This is a group assignment.
Your team is the consulting team that has been hired by company X. Company X has hired your team to create a new innovative product that will increase their profits. In this project you must:

Select a real company that would hire out a consulting firm to assist with the creation of a product to assist with their profits.

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The product must be innovative and create profits in the organization.
The team must:

Denote the current leadership model in the team
The pros and cons of the current leadership model, assess whether the current leadership model can sustain the new product, and note why or why not. If the organizational leadership needs to change state how.
Note the top five organizational strategic goals that the product will enhance and why
Note the top five decisions that leadership will have to make with the implementation of the new product
Note any organizational changes that must occur for the product to be successful

Create the product and note why it will be successful and fit into the organizations strategy
Create a PowerPoint presentation to show the leadership team and pitch the idea(for about 12 slides).
Note: This project is more about the leadership modifications that need to occur due to the implementation of a new product.
Research paper should be at least 7-8 pages and it should answer all the questions/concerns mentioned by the professor.(intro,abstract,.)

* Before leaving on Friday the team must:
-Select a company that would hire a consulting firm to create a product.
– Determine the innovative product to create
-Create a high-level plan to note who is performing which activity and when it will be due by.

This is a
groupassignment.

Your team is the consulting team that has been hired by company X. Company X has hired your team to create a new innovative product that will increase their profits. In this project you must:
Select a real company that would hire out a consulting firm to assist with the creation of a product to assist with their profits.
. The product must be innovative and create profits in the organization.
. The team must:
. Denote the current leadership model in the team
. The pros and cons of the current leadership model, assess whether the current leadership model can sustain the new product, and note why or why not. If the organizational leadership needs to change state how.
. Note the top five organizational strategic goals that the product will enhance and why
. Note the top five decisions that leadership will have to make with the implementation of the new product
. Note any organizational changes that must occur for the product to be successful

Create the product and note why it will be successful and fit into the organizations strategy
Create a PowerPoint presentation to show the leadership team and pitch the idea(for about 12 slides).
Note: This project is more about the leadership modifications that need to occur due to the implementation of a new product.
Research paper should be at least 7-8 pages and it should answer all the questions/concerns mentioned by the professor.(intro,abstract,.)

* Before leaving on Friday the team must:

-Select a company that would hire a consulting firm to create a product.

– Determine the innovative product to create

-Create a high-level plan to note who is performing which activity and when it will be due by.

SHOW MORE…

Need help updating Flu Vaccination position

Need to elaborate on the sections listed in red and add more content to support our stand on Parents vaccinating their children. Please add substantial content to strengthen our side.
Only need to work on the top sections (sections 1 & 2 -until the strikethrough area)

POSITION RESEARCH PAPER

1

POSITION RESEARCH PAPER 2

Position Paper Report
School
Team 2
Professor
Date

Should Parents be Allowed to Refuse Immunizations that are Required for Schools?

Section I: Statement of the Issue

Underlying Problem

Immunization is a process through which the person is fortified or immunized against a particular disease or disorder. The underlying problem is that the parental refusal to vaccinate their children is increasing and has serious public health consequences. The problem has come from the observations of the recent pandemic when parents refuse to vaccinate their children. Refusal to vaccinate children is a public health issue because it increases the risk of spreading diseases to others. According to the World Health Organization regarding a joint statement from the International Coalition of Medicines Regulatory Authorities, both the authorities from the public health and healthcare professionals have shown a profound interest in the debate of vaccination against the pandemic. Also from the UNICEF data, there is a clear trend of increased refusal for vaccination and immunization among various populations. For example, 16 percent of those from low-income countries have only received one vaccine dose relative to 80 percent in the high-income countries (Unicef, 2022). Among many factors causing this decline are disruptions in the service and supply chain, diversion of resources to response efforts, and perhaps some of the containment approaches that placed constraints to the accessibility of the immunization service. However, global vaccination is progressively declining, because in 2021, 25 million children missed out on life saving vaccines and this was 8 million more than in 2020 and 2019 combined (Unicef, 2022). This can be seen in a rise in outbreaks and cases in recent years. Various studies have shown that children who are not vaccinated have a higher chance of developing the disease than children who are. They also have a higher chance of spreading the disease to others. For example, a study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the U.S. found that unvaccinated children were 15 times more likely to contract whooping cough than vaccinated children. The CDC is concerned about the increased refusal to vaccinate for several reasons. Firstly, the increasing number of cases and outbreaks of diseases that have previously been controlled or eliminated is concerning. Secondly, CDC is concerned about the increasing number of deaths from diseases that were once preventable by vaccination. According to the study conducted by Phadke et al. (2016) on vaccination, refusal for measles and pertussis indicate that nearly one million people who died from COVID-19 may have lived if they had vaccinated against measles and pertussis.

Controversial Issue

The controversial factor is whether parents should have the right to refuse the vaccination of their children. No doubt, vaccination of children to immunize them against certain diseases is in the best interest of society at large. Some parents do not want their children to be immunized and refuse it. In this situation, it becomes controversial whether the parents have the right of refusal or if it is the government’s right to make it mandatory. The issue is controversial because vaccinations are necessary for children, but whether parents’ refusal is an acceptable action needs to be addressed. This issue is controversial because, in most countries, there is a legal obligation to vaccinate children against certain diseases. The right of parents to refuse vaccination for their children is legally limited, as parents are required to ensure that their children do not pose a risk of infection to others in schools. There are several reservations about the right of parents to refuse vaccination. (Farhad Ali Khattak, 2021) Has given some reasons for vaccination and objections of parents. Key among them is a lack of trust. Parents’ reservations are the fear of side effects and the lack of trust in the doctors. (Harman, 2022) have published the effects of unvaccinated people in a population. One effect is that unvaccinated children pose a risk of infection to other people who cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons. Another important effect is that some diseases have been almost eradicated in many parts of the world, whereas unvaccinated people can reintroduce them into areas where they had previously disappeared. The controversy about this issue is also fueled by some studies showing that vaccines may have adverse side effects. Some people believe that vaccinations can be replaced by natural ways of preventing infectious diseases (e.g., nutrition). Doctors and other immunization experts disagree with parents’ right to refuse vaccination because they believe that the right of one person (the child) is not more important than the right of another person (the child’s playmates, relatives, and so on). However, reservations like religious objections, allergies, and side effects are not the only reasons for parents not wanting to have their children vaccinated. Some parents do not know enough about vaccines and fear possible complications after vaccination. Others find that, as a rule, vaccinations are not justified because the risk of infectious diseases is much smaller than it used to be. The unvaccinated children have not been immunized against diseases, and therefore are more likely to become infected with those diseases. Unvaccinated children are considered a risk because they may have a large number of diseases, and are therefore more likely to infect other people. For instance, the Western Hemisphere’s measles, polio, and smallpox outbreaks were all eradicated thanks to vaccinations, which have also had a significant positive impact on human health in general. However, in order for vaccinations to be successful, they must be given to a very high number of people.

Benefits of Solving the ProblemF

There will be a benefit to ending the debate of parents’ right to refuse vaccination. It will be clear whether the parents can make the decision. Making parents agree on the issue of their rights regarding vaccination will be beneficial for everyone. The benefits of this agreement are that some parents will be more careful in the future and will ensure they do not expose their children to danger. Some parents with different opinions on the matter will be aware of the importance of caring for their child’s health. In case of a crisis in the area or at schools, it will be possible to communicate with all parents and ensure their children are vaccinated.

Priori Position

We take the position in favor of parents who have the right to refuse the immunization required for the school. People may take this priori position due to several reasons. Firstly, it is not their business to decide whether their children should be vaccinated or not. It is the parent’s decision, and they ought to be respected. Secondly, the parents have a right to choose what is best for their children. For example, they do not want to harm them by injecting them with harmful chemicals that may cause severe side effects. Parents believe that vaccines can cause serious health problems for their children, such as autism and allergies. Moreover, some people believe there is no need to vaccinate children if they get all required vaccinations as babies (e.g., hepatitis B vaccine). Finally, they may argue that it is not worth risking the child’s life to protect others from catching some diseases.

Section II: Background and Evolution of the Issue

Origin of the Problem

The origin of parents’ refusal of vaccination started from the beginning. (Ramzan, 2021) has presented research on the topic that almost 10 million lives were saved by vaccination from the 1960s-2015 and these vaccines were against various diseases. Vaccinations are always newly introduced after the spread of disease, and parents are unsure whether they will be safe for their children. The proper permission of medical experts, scientists, researchers, and international health-related organizations like WHO or CDC is taken to introduce vaccination for a particular disease. Still, the parents feel reluctant to give the dose of vaccination to the children. If the parents are satisfied with the healthcare professionals reasoning, then they will allow the vaccination or immunization, but if they are not satisfied, the right of refusal remains in place. Examples of vaccines released after the disease are: (1) the polio vaccine, released after the polio epidemic of 19551961 in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe, to prevent polio. (2) the smallpox vaccine, released after a large-scale outbreak of smallpox in England in 17981802; (3) the measles vaccine, which was introduced after a major measles outbreak in Britain during 19521953 (Elflein, 2020).
The delay is unknown but may have been due to government or health officials’ lack of political commitment.
(What delay are you talking about? You never mention a delay before. Are you talking about vaccination being released after an outbreak? Specify that, its a bit confusing). The decision to introduce the vaccine appears to have been made by individual physicians and local health authorities acting independently. Parents are still reluctant to let their children get the vaccination because they believe it will damage their children. The vaccine is considered to be poison by some parents, and this belief may be one of the reasons for the delay in introducing vaccination. In the United States, polio was primarily a disease of children which was spread by close personal contact.

The incidence rate of polio rose from about 0.4 cases per 100,000 population in 1939 to an average of about 4.2 cases per 100,000 population (range: 113) in 1960; during that year, there were 622 reported cases in the United States alone. In 19551956 an outbreak occurred in California; from January 1955 to September 1956, there were 28 reported cases, and from January 1956 to September 1957, there were 1,934 reported cases.
An example of children being harmed by vaccinations was the Cutter Polio vaccine incident. Cutter is a lab that was responsible for manufacturing Jonas Salk’s vaccines. He had a detailed protocol, but they followed Sabin’s attenuated vaccine method. Instead of using Salk’s formaldehyde to inactivate polio, they used Sabin’s attenuated strain, which activated Polio through the gut (Fitzpatrick, 2006). This error was costly. Two hundred children were paralyzed, and ten children died due to polio. Healthcare professionals did try to downplay this, with Surgeon General Leonard Andrew Scheele believing that the children were infected before the vaccination. This was a required vaccination for schools starting in the 1950s. It makes sense that parents from there on would be skeptical of required vaccinations for their children (Kurlander, 2022). The fault, according to Paul A. Offit, an American Pediatrician who was a co-inventor of a rotavirus vaccine, goes to the federal government, which sent inspectors to each lab to follow the manufacture of the Polio vaccines. Cutter’s Lab was the only one not to follow Salk’s protocol.
The painful past of Tuskegee casts a shadow on efforts to immunize African Americans. The tragedy of the 20th century is still very current. The United States Public Health Service (USPHS) carried out the “Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male,” which included autopsies, spinal taps, x-rays, and blood tests on the participants. In black people, it was intended to “observe the natural history of untreated syphilis.” The goal of the study was to track the progression of untreated syphilis naturally. Researchers failed to not get patients’ informed consent for the trial and did not provide treatment, even after it was publicly available.
In August 2022, the FDA allowed the emergency use authorization of the bivalent COVID-19 boosters. They even qualified for the booster (Pfizer) to be given to children older than 12 years old. This bivalent version of the vaccination contains the mRNA common in the Omicron variant. The Omicron variant has been causing the most cases in the USA during the summer of 2022. With school season coming up soon, the FDA rushed the approval process by pushing an emergency use authorization. This is a risky call because we are unsure of the side effects and severity of these vaccinations (Elflein, 2020). When a new drug is produced, it is supposed to be tested on animals to evaluate the vaccine’s safety. Then the clinical trials move on to healthy adult subjects to ensure the vaccination’s effectiveness. The last clinical trial moves on a target population to test the drug’s efficacy. Finally, the results are sent to the FDA for review. With the FDA approval, the manufacturer will decide to enter the drug into the market. Leaving these trials in the dark from the public will cause parents not to trust the government and its decisions. This shows the government’s inconsistency, for they have not learned from the Polio incident.
Parents frequently use religious opposition as a justification for delaying their children’s vaccinations. According to some research (
What research. Anytime you say study research some say, have a citation for it), the rise in religious exemptions has resulted in epidemics of diseases like the mumps that may be prevented by vaccination. The use of cell lines obtained from a voluntarily aborted fetus is the immunization practice that Catholics find to be the most ethically dubious.

Current Affairs

The parents’ reasons for refusing the vaccination or immunization have been explained by different authors and are published in journals. (Farhad Ali Khattak, 2021) Has presented the reasons for parents’ refusal of their children’s immunization. The parents’ education was one of the significant reasons for refusing the vaccination of children. The study revealed another reason, such as the vaccine’s adverse reaction on the children. The vaccination reacts differently towards different individuals, so parents need to analyze whether they want immunization for their children or not. They might hear the rumor that a child has died, which may be the reason for refusal. The adverse reactions parents fear are like children developing Oedema at the injection site, pain at the injection site, a temperature that was not recorded but was thought to be quite high by the parents, and a measured fever of 39 to 40.5 degrees Celsius. Given the statistics of children vaccinated and those who have not. The number of unvaccinated children has increased from 2,000,000 to 7,000,000 in the last 50 years, given statistical evidence to show that this non-vaccination rate is increasing. It is estimated that two million children do not go to school because they are sick which can damage a childs education, but the number of schools that provide free immunization services is increasing every year.
The parents claim themselves as the decision makers for the family and refuse to have the vaccination for their children. The first reason is the loss of trust in the medical sector because people are afraid (Elflein, 2020). The parents do not want to lose their children or see them in pain from the side effects of vaccination. Several incidents are reported due to negligence of the medical sector, which is why the parents do not agree to allow immunization for their children. Some medical professionals, like the one we discussed in our previous post, advise alternative vaccination schedules so the parents can feel more at ease about immunizing their children and not rushed or in fear of vaccination overlap. The risks and effects of vaccines are the other reasons parents refuse the vaccination. The research participants shared their experiences regarding the side effects of immunization, or they had the stories of their friends and relatives. The adverse reaction is that children may develop conditions that complicate their health and cause death. The data was collected during the coronavirus, and the vaccination was new, so the parents did not agree to use the immunization among their children. The side effects were already known as fever and nausea, but the parents do not want to take the risk of worse side effects. Parents’ health perceptions and practices are also the reasons to refuse the immunization, and it was shown that the participants were in favor that the parents must not be pressured to delay their rights.
(Aedh, 2022) has conducted a cross-sectional study to determine and discuss the response and attitude of parents toward the coronavirus vaccine. The study said parents who refused the vaccines were likely to have negative attitudes toward the vaccines. The majority of parents (73.5%) have kids that are 5 to 11 years old. Parents were 9.5 times less likely to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 when 72.2% showed vaccine reluctance (Elflein, 2020). Compared to the 15.51 percent of parents who had no interest in immunizing their children against COVID-19, about 27.8% of parents were prepared to do so as soon as possible. Parental willingness to vaccinate their children against the COVID-19 vaccine was significantly higher in parents with postgraduate and higher degrees (39.5%), working as healthcare professionals (40.36%) and in government sectors (33.93%). The vaccination and the relevant attitudes are not new topics to discuss, but it is observed that the coronavirus is a recent case, and it has led parents to make various decisions for their children. The parents have two schools of thought. Some parents immediately had their children receive the immunization as the coronavirus rapidly spread. On the other hand, some parents did not allow their children to get vaccinated. Distrust and doubt about the quality of vaccination played an essential part in the refusal due to past events like the Polio and Syphilis incidents. The children are the responsibility of the parents, and they never want them to be hurt in any way, which is why the parents have the right to refuse.

Principal Stakeholders

Ultimately, parents are the stakeholders in immunizing their children. At the same time, the government is also a significant stakeholder because it cannot neglect the health and welfare of the public at large. Specifically, CDC is the principal agency in the government, and parents are the stakeholders of the children and the decision of immunization, so as necessary, the parents must be counseled. CDC suggests that providers/pharmacists talk to the parents and remind them of the importance of vaccination. The need of the hour is not to debate whether the parents have rights or not, but it is essential to convince them. The parents must be informed that there will be no side effects, and the government should provide the proper training to parents to understand the critical need for vaccination.

Section III: Identification and Evaluation of Alternatives (pros & cons)

What are the Major Alternatives to Solving the Problem?

What are the Relative Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Alternative?

Many people come to the U.S. for the luxury of having the freedom of choice. Although parents should have the full right to control their children’s lives by choosing whether or not they want them vaccinated, they also need to consider everyone else’s lives. Salmon stated, “Children who have exemptions to these laws are at greater risk for contracting VPDs and transmitting the disease to children too young to be vaccinated.” Refusing vaccination puts their children at risk and affects others in the community, including vulnerable children too young to be vaccinated. Most parents have their reasoning as to why they refuse to immunize their children. Most parents are concerned about the safety and efficacy of vaccines and distrust the healthcare system. Many factors influence parents’ decisions, such as religion; their religious convictions forbid ingesting anything into one’s bodyuninsured families who don’t have insurance and refuse to pay for any vaccination cost. Parents who have trouble speaking English, thus they won’t accept anything without fully understanding what their children are receiving. And some refuse vaccinations because of the possible side effects their children might experience. Moreover, parents’ educational background plays an essential role in their decision regarding vaccinating their children. Napolitano stated, “it found more than half of unvaccinated American adults who reported strong hesitancy to the vaccine had a high school education or less.” Therefore, some people don’t realize how effective those vaccinations are due to their poor educational background. The Washington Post mentioned, “The more time doctors spent talking about the vaccination, the study found, the more suspicious and worried the parents got about the vaccine” Patients frequently become fearful and overthink their children’s treatments when doctors talk to them in complex language, which makes them uncomfortable with using scientific terminology. And this is precisely how people who have trouble speaking English feel most of them imagine when it comes to their children’s health when they don’t understand what the doctor is saying. And we have those extreme parents who refuse immunization without any reason; they argue that their children should be exempt from getting any vaccine.
Do parents realize the importance of vaccinating their children? Are they aware of a vaccine’s approval process for safety and efficacy? Before a vaccine is approved, it is subjected to a long and careful review by scientists, doctors, and healthcare professionals. Imagine a world without vaccines. The disease would spread quickly; people would be afraid to contact others, and parents would hold children back from playing with other children. Vaccines have changed the world several times. They protect future generations. A few generations ago, diseases like polio or smallpox killed or severely disabled many people. These diseases have been significantly reduced due to vaccinations.
If we stopped vaccinating, the diseases would start coming back. All those diseases are still active in some parts of the world. If we don’t stay vaccinated, the diseases will come back. On the other hand, healthcare providers throw a lot of information to their patients where they have many options leading them to avoid getting their children vaccinated. One of the main reasons why parents refuse it is their distrust of the healthcare system. Parents are worried about the safety and efficacy of those vaccines. But parents don’t realize they are putting their children at greater risk by refusing immunizations; diseases pick out vulnerable people first, so babies and young kids would be first. Moreover, parents should not be allowed to refuse immunizations. To provide a safe environment, every child needs to be vaccinated. Vaccines have scientifically proven throughout the decades how effective and necessary they are. When everyone is vaccinated, it makes it harder for a disease to spread. If a person infected with the disease comes in contact with people vaccinated, the disease will have little opportunity to spread. Community immunity is the type of protection created when many people are vaccinated. It means that many of us are protecting each other, especially the most vulnerable among us, such as those children.

Section IV: Description and Defense of Position

What is your Posteriori Position (ie: after doing your research)?

What is your Argument to Support this Position?

Section V: Implementation and Recommendations

Actions Needed

As one of the complaints listed above, parents need to be able to trust the government and healthcare officials. There were multiple instances where the government has hidden information from the public that affected their health, like the Flint Michigan incident and the Polio vaccine trials. It is required for healthcare professionals to provide information to the parent, so they understand the importance of certain vaccinations. If the parent refuses the immunization application, then it is a failure for the government not to show adequate information to the public.
With all these instances of distrust and hidden information from the public, parents don’t want to vaccinate their children with everything the government requires for school. The action needed by the government right now is to follow the protocols of FDA rules. This is about the health of our generation; rushing processes like this can cause severe damage to a population like Flint, Michigan, and Cutter lab accidents. The evidence needs to be clear and publicly accessible. This way, the parents are well educated on the subject and can make the correct decisions on their children’s health. Even if they refuse the vaccination, they can at least make good points with the information they have learned and challenge the healthcare professionals’ knowledge. This could open a legitimate discussion about vaccinations and their contents.
Promoting the importance of immunizations is another critical solution to this issue. We hardly ever see these types of advertisements on television or social media. Visual advertising is what catches people’s attention. Vaccines are one of the most excellent tools to prevent infectious diseases and their serious complications. And so, promoting it on T.V. would show that before a vaccine is licensed and recommended for use, it goes through a complex process to ensure it is both safe and effective. This includes preclinical work in the laboratory to demonstrate the vaccine can induce a protective immune response so that those parents will know how safe and effective those vaccines are. Not only promoting it on social media but also promoting community protection” in public health law and communications and restoring broad societal trust in vaccination for those who don’t have access to social media.
Another way is to have healthcare professionals use simple language when speaking to their patients. The government should encourage physicians to commit to listening to and understanding barriers to vaccination and the concerns of parents to make vaccination services more accessible and user-friendly. Every patient needs to feel comfortable and safe when speaking to their physician, which will break the barrier between physicians and patients.

Stakeholder Support

This will not only be in the best interest of parents as the stakeholders but also the providers too. They will benefit from the health of the public being ameliorated. The only way for this to happen is for the public to be aware of the truth and not hide valuable information. Such valuable information will help more parents to immunize their children and patients to immunize themselves. With this outcome, the stakeholders will benefit.
CMS stands for Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services. Medicaid and Medicare are responsible for covering the vaccines and not paying a single cent from the patient. So how does the provider make money if there is no copay for these expensive concoctions? CMS pays the providers on a dose-administered basis. For example, for each COVID-19 dose given, CMS will pay the provider $80 (Oregon 2020). It’s frustrating to have a parent refuse immunizations because their child’s safety could be in danger now and because the provider misses out on reimbursement from purchasing the vaccinations. If parents had more knowledge available to them about vaccinations, the provider would make ends meet in the vaccination business (Hut, 2022).
So, for the sake of money and the public’s health, providers should take the time to explain to the parent why vaccination is essential for the child and other children at the school. As mentioned above, parents who are well educated and understand the process will accept the immunization for their child. This does mean that the parents need to meet the providers halfway. They need to speak about their concerns about vaccinations so a discussion can be had. Most anti-vaccine parents reply no and with no willingness to change their minds. Research reputable sources and talk to the provider about them so more information can be shared.
With the belief that parents are the ultimate deciders of their children’s immunization, We believe that parents are allowed to refuse vaccinations for school. We believed in this thought because they should be fully educated on these procedures. If they are not given a proper description of the reason for the vaccination, they can rightfully refuse without religious or medical reasoning. With instances like Flint Michigan, and Cutter’s lab’s error costing hundreds of children’s lives, it is reasonable for parents to be reluctant to vaccinate. However, after much research, immunizations save more lives than take, so our position has changed. Parents should not be allowed to refuse immunizations for school unless exempted by religious/medical reasons. To get more parents on board with vaccinations, it is for doctors to take the time to explain the importance of them, use layman’s terms, and for the media to advertise the shots.

Section VI: Conclusion

References

Aedh, A. I. (2022). Parents Attitudes, Their Acceptance of the COVID-19 Vaccines for Children
and the Contributing Factors in Najran, Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Survey.
Vaccines, 10(1264). DOI:
https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10081264

Commissioner, O. of the. (n.d.).
Coronavirus (COVID-19) update: FDA authorizes Moderna,

Pfizer-BioNTech bivalent COVID-19 vaccines for booster doses. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved September 27, 2022, from
https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/coronavirus-covid-19-update-fda-authorizes-moderna-pfizer-biontech-bivalent-covid-19-vaccines-use#:~:text=With%20today’s%20authorization%2C%20the%20FDA,years%20of%20age%20and%20older%2C

Elflein, J. (2020). Percentage of U.S. adults who thought vaccines were more dangerous than the
diseases they are supposed to prevent in 2001, 2015, and 2019. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/1092333/opinions-on-vaccines-being-more-dangerous-than-the-diseases-they-are-for-us/

Farhad Ali Khattak, K. R. (2021). Prevalence of Parental refusal rate and its associated factors in
routine immunization using WHO Vaccine Hesitancy tool: A Cross-sectional study at district Bannu, K.P., Pakistan.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 104, 117-124. doi:

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.12.029

Fitzpatrick, M. (2006, March).
The Cutter Incident: How America’s first polio vaccine led to a

growing vaccine crisis. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. Retrieved October 14,

2022, from

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1383764/

Harman, J. N. (2022). Why do parents refuse childhood vaccination? Reasons reported in
Finland.
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 50(4), 490-496. doi:
https://doi.org/10.1177/14034948211004323

Hut, N. (2022).
Providers that administer the COVID-19 vaccine are getting a payment bump

from CMS. hfma. Retrieved October 6, 2022, from
https://www.hfma.org/topics/coronavirus/providers-that-administer-the-covid-19-vaccine-are-getting-a-pay.html#:~:text=Effective%20March%2015%2C%20providers%20will,is%20from%20%2445%20to%20%2480.

Kurlander , C., & Juhl , R. P. (2022, September 13).
Lessons from how the polio vaccine went

from the lab to the public that Americans can learn from today. The Conversation. Retrieved October 6, 2022, from
https://theconversation.com/lessons-from-how-the-polio-vaccine-went-from-the-lab-to-the-public-that-americans-can-learn-from-today-145604#:~:text=Clinical%20trials&text=It%20began%20on%20April%2023,Francis%2C%20independently%20monitored%20the%20study.

November 08, 2018, M. D. (2022, July 18). Flin

  

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