response to duran


please try to ensure use of reviewed journal articles, not references from websites. 160 words minimum APA format

Case study A

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Name the contributing factors on J.D that might put her at risk to develop iron deficiency anemia.

One of the major causes of anemia is the loss of blood. J.D experienced heavy menstrual flows for six days leading to a lot of blood loss. Assuming she does not eat iron-rich food, it could lead to iron deficiency anemia. Furthermore, J.D experienced intermenstrual bleeding for two months which is irregular and led to a lot of blood loss. Heavy blood loss in both cases was a major risk factor for developing anemia due to a lack of iron.

Within the case study, describe the reasons why J.D. might be presenting constipation and or dehydration.

The major reason for dehydration is the severe loss of blood J.D was experiencing, while constipation might be due to hormonal changes especially progesterone and dysregulated estrogen. The two hormones build up in the body before and during the menstrual cycle and they are known to slow down the digestive system leading to constipation.

Why Vitamin B12 and folic acid are important on the erythropoiesis? What abnormalities their deficiency might cause on the red blood cells?

Erythropoiesis is the process by which red blood cells are formed. The formation of red blood cells requires cell proliferation from red cell precursors erythroblasts (Joseph et al., 2017). Cell differentiation in cell proliferation is aided by vitamin B12 and folic acid. A lack of vitamin B12 and folic acid means that there will be less or no cell differentiation which helps in increasing the red blood cells in the body. The body will experience anemia if there are insufficient red blood cells since they only have a 115-day lifespan.

The gynecologist is suspecting that J.D. might be experiencing iron deficiency anemia.In order to support the diagnosis, list and describe the clinical symptoms that J.D. might have positive for Iron deficiency anemia.

Iron deficiency anemia has multiple symptoms. One of the signs is general body weakness. Lack of enough iron in the body leads to body inability to make the protein hemoglobin which carries oxygen all over the body. With less or no hemoglobin, the body tissues are unable to get the required oxygen, leading to less or no energy (Cappellini et al., 2020). Furthermore, pica is another symptom of iron deficiency anemia in which the body craves for non-food items such as clay and ice cream.

If the patient is diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia, what do you expect to find as signs of this type of anemia? List and describe.

Skin paleness- the hemoglobin in the blood gives it a red color. Iron deficiency leads to less hemoglobin in the blood, making it less red, resulting in skin losing color.
Shortness of breath- decreased number of red blood cells makes the blood unable to carry the required amount of oxygen which is required for normal body processes.

Labs results came back for the patient. Hb 10.2 g/dL; Hct 30.8%; Ferritin 9 ng/dL; red blood cells are smaller and paler in color than normal. Research list and describe for appropriate recommendations and treatments for J.D.

The first major recommendation is for J.D. to eat more food rich in iron. It would help to increase the amount of iron in the body. Additionally, the doctors could offer iron supplements to ensure that JD has the required amount of iron in the body (Elstrott et al., 2020). Besides, the doctors should consider treating the menstrual problems causing J.D. to lose a lot of blood eventually treating the underlying anemia deficiency conditions.

Case study B

For patients at risk of developing coronary artery disease and patients diagnosed with acute myocardial infarct, describe the modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors.

The modifiable risks are factors that an individual can control. They mostly consist of lifestyle diseases and choices. The risk factors include smoking, being overweight, diabetes, lack of physical activity, high blood pressure, and high blood cholesterol (Joseph et al., 2017). The modifiable risks lead to low density and triglycerides being deposited on the coronary artery. The non-modifiable risks are those that cannot be controlled. They include age in which older people above 65 years are at a high risk. Gender, where men are more at risk than women, family history, and ethnic background are additional non-modifiable hazards.

What would you expect to see on Mr. W.G. EKG and which findings described on the case are compatible with the acute coronary event?

Due to the myocardial infarction, a depression or ST-segment elevation would be observed. Moreover, a T-wave inversion would be seen as a result of increased myocardial inflation in the heart. Findings compatible with the coronary event include; chest pains and discomfort while playing and spreading of pain from neck to the lower jaw.

Having only the opportunity to choose one laboratory test to confirm the acute myocardial infarct, which would be the most specific laboratory test you would choose and why?

The best laboratory test to conduct is troponin T. The reasons for using troponin T is that it increases in patients who have had a recent cardiac problem and it indicates where the problem is and its extent. Moreover, troponin T is very specific and accurate in giving the cardiac abnormality that have just happened and it measures a wide range of cardiac problems making it among the recommended cardiac tests (Collinson, 2021).

How do you explain that Mr. W.G temperature has increased after his Myocardial Infarct, when that can be observed and for how long? Base your answer on the pathophysiology of the event.

Inflammatory markers such as IL-6, IL1, and c-reactive protein are released to the blood stream after myocardial infarct. The inflammatory markers cause an increase in prostaglandin E2 in hypothalamus resulting to increased temperatures. The increased temperatures may be within 24 to 48 after the event. In some instances, the temperatures may stay elevated for 4 to 5 days.

Explain to Mr. W.G. why he was experiencing pain during his Myocardial Infarct. Elaborate and support your answer.

Mr. W.G pain was caused by the blockage of the blood supply to the heart. Lack of blood supply led to the death of the heart muscles. Furthermore, he experienced pain due production of lactic acid which brought about nerve irritation. Lactic acid was produced by anaerobic respiration since the cells could not get enough oxygen due to the blockage which deprived them of blood rich oxygen (Collinson, 2021).

Cappellini, M. D., Musallam, K. M., & Taher, A. T. (2020). Iron deficiency anaemia revisited.
Journal of Internal Medicine,
287(2), 153170.

Collinson, P. (2021). High sensitivity troponin, analytical advantages, clinical benefits and clinical challengesAn update.
Clinical Biochemistry,
91, 18.

Elstrott, B., Khan, L., Olson, S., Raghunathan, V., DeLoughery, T., & Shatzel, J. J. (2020). The role of iron repletion in adult iron deficiency anemia and other diseases.
European Journal of Haematology,
104(3), 153161.

Joseph, P., Leong, D., McKee, M., Anand, S. S., Schwalm, J.-D., Teo, K., Mente, A., & Yusuf, S. (2017). Reducing the global burden of cardiovascular disease, part 1: The epidemiology and risk factors.
Circulation Research,
121(6), 677694.


writing assignment two

Writing Assignments:



a. Your paper will be graded for proper grammar. Do not start your paper with I am going to discuss. Every student in this class has access to Grammarly. Make sure you use it. Proofread your paper and have a friend or family member proofread your paper.
Review your paper for:
organization (clarity, logic), grammar, spelling, avoid run on sentences and fragments, avoid usage of passive voice, and be sure to capitalize proper nouns.

b. Each writing assignment must be typed, double spaced, and use size 12 font with 1 margins and at least 800 words for the content alone. All paragraphs should be in a justified format. This word requirement does not include your citation to the source(s).

c. You may use a block format or, you may indent. If you choose to ident, the first line of each paragraph must be indented by 0.5. The paper must be submitted through the D2L dropbox feature.

d. All work needs to be your own. Answer in your own words.
Do not copy and paste from the case and do not use quotes. I do not expect you to be lawyers but do expect you to really dig in to facilitate valuable growth in critical thinking and communication skills. This may be challenging at first but stick with it! It can be very rewarding to see your case analysis skills and legal terminology improve over the semester!

e. Originality Check and Word Count is enabled for each assignment. No quotes allowed. The entire writing assignment must be in your own words. The plagiarism software will be turned on so NO QUOTES, NO COPYING AT ALL. You can check your own originality count. If you do not know how to do that, contact the MTSU Help Desk online (24/7) or at 1-615/898-5345.



I understand that you are not attorneys. However, I do want you to be able to learn how to structure an analysis of a case. Each writing assignment will include a case briefing to structure your analysis. You will then be called upon to apply that case to a fact pattern. Your case briefing should use the following format:

Case Name



1. What are the facts?

Your boss heard about this case but does not know the details. Describe the case to him or her. Address the following:
What are the key facts?
Who filed the initial lawsuit and for what reason(s)?
Did the defendant file a counterclaim against the plaintiff, and if so, for what reason(s)?

2. What type of lawsuit did the plaintiff file and how did the lower court(s) rule?

The cases included in the textbook are from an appellate court; i.e., there was at least one prior ruling from another, lower court that is being appealed. Describe the legal actions that happened up to the point of this appeal (Case Posture) (see the paragraph(s) at the end of the FACTS):
Who filed the initial lawsuit?
What was the initial legal claim(s)* filed by the plaintiff (e.g. fraud)?
What remedy was the plaintiff seeking (e.g. recission of the contract)?
If the defendant filed a counterclaim against the plaintiff, what type of legal claim did the defendant make?
How did the initial court (or magistrate or arbitrator) rule? If more than one court, how did each court rule?

3. What court wrote this Opinion and what was the legal issue on appeal?

Describe which party appealed and to which court, as well as the legal question this Court was addressing (read and synthesize from the paragraphs at the end of the FACTS, the OPINION and the INTERPRETATION):
Who filed the appeal?
What is the name of the court in which the appeal was filed (i.e. which court rendered the Opinion in this case – see the light blue banner) (the Court)?
What was the issue on appeal (i.e. the legal question(s) the court addressed in its opinion (e.g. whether silence about a material fact can amount to fraud)?

4. What legal rule(s) did this Court reference to make its decision?

Search for ALL of the legal rules referenced by the Court, such as the elements of the legal claim or the statute (see the Opinion section of this case). You may quote directly from the case here just be sure to include parentheses around your quotes.



5. What were the Plaintiffs Legal Arguments?

What legal arguments did the plaintiff make as to why the plaintiff should prevail on appeal? (You may have to infer from the Opinion)

6. What were the Defendants Legal Arguments?

What legal arguments did the defendant make as to why the defendant should prevail on appeal? (You may have to infer from the Opinion)

7. What was this Courts Decision and Reasoning?

Describe the final decision of this Court and WHY if ruled this way:

What was the final decision of this Court?
Summarize how the Court applied the facts to EACH element of the applicable rule(s) to make its decision.





8. Search for Answers: What are you curious about and what did you find from your search?

Pose your OWN question and search for an answer in the case through Westlaw Campus research. For example, suppose you are puzzled by the courts decision and you want to read additional facts and explanations that are not in the abstracted version. Perhaps you are curious if this issue was decided differently by a court in another state.

To look up this case in Westlaw Campus Research database (in the Library tab) enter one of the case citations in the light blue banner (e.g. 193 Cal.Rptr. 130 is one of the citations for the
Reed v. King case on page 233).

In your answer, address:
What question did you ask?
Describe what you discovered (cite the other case if you looked up another case, or reference the page number if you found information in this case?



9. What evidence was key to the outcome?

What facts were key to the outcome in this case?

10. Change up: What if the facts were different?

Pose the question: What if the facts were different? Create changes to the facts that would probably have resulted in a different outcome of the case and explain why this would have made a difference.

11. What is the impact?

Consider the ethical, legal, business, and societal impact of this decision. Do you agree or disagree with the outcome? Why or why not?



12. What are your insights and recommendations?

How can you apply the insight you have gained to your future career or business transactions?
What do you recommend to businesses as a proactive legal/business strategy in light of the outcome in this case?


What can I do to best prepare myself for class?


What is the best source to learn court system and legal terminology?

I really like the U.S. Supreme Court website located at

It has sections about the justices and frequently asked questions. The coolest thing to me is that it has the actual AUDIO from the arguments before the court. For example, under the tabs Oral Arguments/ Argument Audio, you will find a case Thole v. U. S. Bank, N. A. Click on this and you can hear the recent arguments about a claim against the trustee who lost over $750,000 in this pension fund. Another quick source to get an overview of the civil court system is

Also, dont forget your textbook. Scan chapters 1,3, and 6 for an introduction to the law and overview of the civil
and criminal process if you need a refresher of basic legal terminology.

What is the difference between “legal claims” in question 2 and “legal arguments” in questions 5 and 6?

Question 2 asks about what the legal claim(s) the plaintiff filed initially. Every case has to be filed based on one or more legal claims or remedies. For example, a personal injury suit may be filed for negligence. A party may file a contract claim for breach of contract or for fraud in formation of the contract. In response, the defendant may file a counterclaim against the plaintiff, which is a lawsuit against the plaintiff. For instance, in an automobile accident, the plaintiff may file a claim against the defendant alleging the defendant was negligent and caused the injuries. In response, the defendant may file a counterclaim alleging the plaintiff was negligent and caused the injuries.
In comparison to the legal claim and counterclaim, Questions 5 and 6 probes into why the party should prevail on this appeal. The appeal was filed to address some error alleged in the lower court ruling or to interpret the law in that jurisdiction. Thus, each party presents legal arguments as to the issue on appeal and why it should prevail on appeal.

Example: Read the
Rubin v. Yellow Cab case on page 634 in your textbook.

For Question 2 the plaintiff’s legal claim was that Yellow Cab should be liable as the employer under the doctrine of
respondeat superior because Ball, the driver, was an employee of Yellow Cab and was on duty when he hit the plaintiff with a metal pipe.

For Question 5 and 6, you will elaborate on the arguments for each party. Sometimes, the case does not go into detail as to what one of the partys argued. In many instances, we have to infer based on what the judge wrote or what could be a reasonable inference from the facts and legal issues. For example, in the Rubin case again:
To address question 5, Rubin argued that the driver, Ball, committed the battery within the course and scope of his duties as a cab driver and his actions were designed to further the business of Yellow Cab. Specific points argued by Rubin were that Rubin was (1) investigating the accident (2) protecting Yellow Cab’s property, and (3) preventing plaintiff and others from deterring his progress to the airport to obtain more fares.
In response to question 6, Yellow Cab’s argument was that the doctrine of
respondeat superior did not apply because Ball’s action was outside the course and scope of his employment duties. We also make reasonable inferences based on what the judge said in the Opinion for the defendants arguments (since the judge discussed these points): the defendant possibly argued that Rubin was not impeding the investigation of an accident; the damage had already been done so Rubin was not protecting Yellow Cab’s property, and the delay to the airport had already occurred due to the accident so hitting Ball with a metal stick was not preventing further progress to the airport.


Part One: Brief and analyze
Carter v. Tokai Financial Services, Inc. (See, pp. 388,389 in your textbook).

Part Two: Apply what you learned in
Carter v. Tokai Financial Services, Inc to the below fact pattern.

The Case of the Business Furniture


Frank Sottolano served for 20 years in the U.S. Army, including a 10-year stint as a paralegal with the Office of Judge Advocate General. Following his service, he took advantage of the G.I. Bill and obtained his J.D. at the Nashville School of Law. He successfully passed the bar exam and is now a licensed attorney. Frank has always wanted to perform criminal defense work and decided to open his own firm.
Frank secured an office, purchased a computer, but needed to secure office furniture for himself and his assistant. Frank went to Nashville Office Interiors and picked out desks, chairs, shelves and even some artwork to hang on the walls. Money was tight, so Frank entered into an office furniture lease agreement that extended over 36 months. Crest Capital provided financial backing for the transaction. To secure delivery of the furnishings, Crest Capital required that Frank personally guarantee performance under the agreement. The agreement expressly stated that it was a finance lease as defined by Article 2A of the UCC and permitted purchase of the equipment upon conclusion of the lease for a mere $200.00.
Unfortunately, Franks earlier service in the Army included work in burn-pits in Afghanistan. He contracted cancer and was forced to close his practice after only 11 months. He defaulted upon the lease agreement in month 12 and Crest Capital brought action.

Question :

What Article(s) of the UCC should apply in this scenario? In your answer, use the courts decision in
Carter v. Tokai Financial Services, Inc. to support your argument.


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