Unit 4 Complete


1200 words MINIMUM (not including cover/reference pages or questions)

Requirement is at least three scholarly articles, ONE maybe the course textbook BELOW

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Rees, G., & Smith, P. (2021). Strategic human resource management: An international
perspective (3rd ed.). SAGE.

1. Identify some possible relationships and connections between organization contingencies and the idea of organization maturity.’ Think about how a ‘mature’ and an ‘immature’ organization might differ in relation to the contingencies.
2. Refer to Case Study 11.1 below, Walmart in Argentina. Can you see any differences between the American and Argentinian approaches to work that might be explained by Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (2003)?
3. What do you think are the main issues affecting enterprise IHRM policy?
4. Why does international selection in practice differ so widely from best practice recommendations?

Case Study 11.1Walmart in Argentina

When Walmart built its first stores in the Buenos Aires region, Argentina, it strongly pushed its US-based blueprint of low-pricing tactics and shopping traditions; these were rapidly rejected by most Argentine consumers. After a few years of trial and error, Walmart finally brought about five major business and cultural changes:
Adaptation of store design.
Adaptation of products to local tastes.
Adaptation of shopping culture.
Adaptation of employment practices and workplace culture.
Acceptance of trade unions.
In order to be successful, Walmart adopted a hybrid cultural fusion of North and South American practices after the cultural collision it faced when it first entered Argentina. Walmart encountered many cultural hurdles in fully adapting to the Argentine cultural ways of shopping, buying and working. By and large, these problems were caused by Walmart’s adamant decision to impose its Bentonville (Arkansas) model on Latin America, opting to replicate rather than modify the same basic US store model, ignoring local cultures and idiosyncrasies.
It was perceived as arrogant in its approach to Argentina because, for a long time, it was resistant to catering to Argentine appetites before focusing more on cultural sensitivity and local tastes (e.g. metal displays for fish were replaced by ceramic tiles suggestive of long-established Argentine fish markets). Argentine customers are, on average, smaller than their American counterparts, so clothing racks now hold more items in medium sizes and fewer in large sizes. Argentinians mostly buy local food products; consumers are more likely to buy meat, vegetables, fruit and bread from small shops because customers perceive small shops as retaining the produce freshness that giant chains do not always have. Until Walmart began to sprinkle produce to make items look fresh and adopted other freshness strategies, consumers favoured traditional markets.
Walmart Argentina managers mostly US Americans tried to delegate decision-making and control to employees, but were faced with resistance and frustration. In one Walmart store in Argentina, after clocking in every morning employees devoted an hour to chatting with each other (e.g. about what they did the night before, what they ate, where they went for dinner) and discussing the safety and health of their families before getting to work, hallmarks of collectivism (Hofstede, 2001). Because the workplace atmosphere and output did not improve over time after the American manager told them to cut it out and go straight to work, the manager reinstated the right of employees to chat for an hour before getting down to work.

Source: Adapted from Matusitz (2016)


Observing Elements of Theatre Production Assignment #1

Three sections. need 750 words
I am assigned element(scenery)
Due in 6 hours

Intro to Theatre and Dramatic Literature (ENGL/TD120), Fall 2022
Writing Assignment One: Observing Elements of Production
Due: 10/11 on Canvas by 11:59 PM CST.


Writing Assignment One is designed to help you observe how a single element of production
works both descriptively and analytically. To do well on this assignment, youll need to push yourself
to carefully observe the choices made by designers in ways that you may not have noticed prior
to taking this class. The assignment asks you to report objectively (without personal opinion or bias)
in Observation Sections #1 and #2 before coming to your own assertive conclusions in the Analysis

Expectation: Demonstrate ability to describe and critique one element of theatre production
the National Theatres adaptation of Treasure Island (dir. Polly Findlay) [available through Drama
Online Database on the UW-Madison library website]. Your TA will tell you which Production
Element you will be considering. To succeed on the assignment, you must:

1) Closely observe how one specific production element in the performance is being used to help
create meaning in production.
2) Report observations with clarity and specific detail.
3) Draw clear conclusions grounded in observations.


Note: Each section should start on its own page. IE) Section 1 Should begin on Page 1; Section 2
on Page 2; Section 3 on Page 3.

Section 1. Observations from Production: The production Element in the entire production (250-
300 words)

Using vocabulary from Barbara Claytons Guide to Basic Elements of Theatre Production,
make observations about a single production element in a single production. How do you observe
the production element working across the production? Are there repeated patterns used by the
designer? Specific sections that have more production element density than others? Successful
responses will describe the overall use of the production element in the production objectively and
support the description with cited evidence.

Section 2. Observations from one Scene: The production Element in a single scene (250-300

How does the production element work in a single scene? Choose one brief window of time
between 180-300 consecutive seconds in length to specifically observe. Watch this scene
repeatedly until you are confident in the use of the production element in this scene. Successful
responses will use cited example to describe how the element functions in this scene.

Section 3. Analysis: Insights into how the Production Element choices make meaning for
audience (200-250 words)

1) What meaning can you make from the designer/directors production element choices in the
scene[add specific scene language]?
2) How do the specific choices impact the audiences experience of the narrative and the theatrical
3) Did you find the designers choices effective?

Successful responses will support claims with specific evidence and avoid generalizations.

Observations #1: 25%
Observations #2: 25%
Analysis: 30%
Properly Cited Evidence: 10%
Logistics, Grammar, Spelling, Mechanics: 10%

-Cite evidence by either video time stamp (hour: minute: second). For example, if the lighting
changes drastically one hour and 30 minutes into the productions for a duration of 30 seconds you
might write:

Designer Mike Smith used a pinpoint spotlight on actor Jane Doe (1:30:00-1:30:30).

-This level of citation specificity is essential for letting your reader understand your observations and
eventual analysis.
-You should mention the directors, actors, and designers responsible for the choices being made by
name at least once whenever possible.
-I do not expect you to use outside sources for this assignment, but if you do so, you must cite them

Word Choice:
-You are not allowed to use first person singular pronouns (I, my, me, mine) except when quoting
the text. The reason? Pushing subjective reactions to the sideline for this essay will help you focus
on objective evidence.

-To receive full credit for Logistics, your heading should follow this template:
[Your Name]
ENGL/TD120- [Your Section] / [TAs Last Name]
Scene: [Indicate your focal scene]
Word Counts: 222 / 215 / 199 [Indicate word counts for each of the 3 sections]

Use standard formatting: 12 point Times font with 1 margins and double spacing. PDF
submissions only. GUIDE TO BASIC ELEMENTS

Scenery * Acting * Lighting * Costumes * Spatial Relationships * Sound * Audience

By Dr. Barbara Clayton

Successful writing about theatrical performance relies on the writer’s ability to identify, describe,
analyze, and evaluate specific elements of production. Usually shaped by a director, designers,
and actors in response to dramatic text, these production elements create the meanings
spectators take from theatrical performance. All of these elements interact, so the planning of a
production is usually a collaborative endeavor by the director, designers, and actors to create a
specific theatrical experience.

Intended to aid students in analyzing production elements in performance, the following
Guide briefly summarizes the primary production elements.

Scenery provides the physical environment in which the dramatic action comes to life. Two
important functions of scenery are to create a visual world for the dramatic action and to provide
an interesting space for actors and director to use in creating physical action onstage. Scene
designers use style, color, mass, form, line, and texture within a defined space (usually a stage)
to create the world of the play. When analyzing scenery in a production, consider the following

Environmental conditions: What does the scenery convey about time of year,
weather, geography, or other environmental conditions?

Movement potential: How do actors enter and exit the stage? Are there staircases,
spiraling ramps, large open spaces, or other features that suggest specific movement

Style: Does the scenery create a realistic sense of time and place? Or is the space
symbolic or abstract? Does the scenery employ scenic conventions from a different
time or place? Japanese Kabuki staging, for example, or painted scenery in the style of
18th century England?

Color, texture, line, and rhythm: Does the scenery use bright or subdued colors?
Rough, jagged, soft, or silken surfaces? Smooth, undulating lines or rectilinear forms?
One door or many doors? What atmosphere or mood do these choices create? Size and
scale? How large or small are the scenic elements in relationship to the actors and the
audience? What might scenic scale imply about the action of the play?

Scene changes: Does the scenery change, how often, and why or why not? How do
the scene changes influence the overall rhythm of the action?

Relationship to audience: What relationship between the audience and the
performance does the scenery suggest? Do scenic elements blend into audience space?
Is the audience separated from the performance space by a spatial or physical barrier?


Actors bring the characters to life, investing them with movement, voice, passion, intellect, and
desire. Voice and body are the actors primary tools, but other production elements often assist
the actor in representing characters. Costume, including hair and make-up, is especially
important. Also important is an actors ability to shape his or her performance in relation to the
ensemble (the other actors). Different production styles (for example realism, epic theatre, or
theatre of the absurd) call for varying acting styles. When analyzing acting in a production,
consider the following topics:

Voice: Does the actor use specific pitch, range, volume, quality, or vocal rhythms to
create the character? Does the actor use dialect or accent? Does the actor use any unusual
vocal mannerisms to create character (for example, a cough or other repetitive sound)?
How do these vocal choices create character?

Body: How does the actor stand and move? Does she crouch and creep about the stage?
Or does she stand tall and walk with stately grace? What rhythms does the actor use? Is
his movement abrupt and unpredictable or smooth and flowing? Does the actor use any
physical mannerisms (for example, constantly straightening objects on a desk or picking
lint from clothing)? How do these physical choices create character?

Ensemble: Does the actor seem to listen to the other actors and respond accordingly? Is
there a real sense of give-and-take on stage? What does the actor do when not speaking?

Style: Does the actor attempt to believably embody the character? Is the actors goal to
show a characters actions without fully embodying them? Does a characters
believability seem less important than the playwrights or directors specific vision?
What specific choices in voice, body, and ensemble create the sense of style?

Spatial Relationships
The term “spatial relationships” (sometimes called “blocking”) refers to the physical positioning
of actors on the stage relative to other actors, scenic elements, the playing space, and the
audience. A director usually
works with actors to establish patterns of movement and physical positions that illuminate
characters, character relationships, and the dramatic action. When analyzing spatial relationships
in a production, consider the following topics:

Areas: Are specific areas on the stage associated with specific characters or actions?
Levels: Does the scenery permit actors to appear on different levels? What

implications about character relationships emerge from the use of levels?
Distance: Do characters appear close together or far apart when they interact? What

information about their relationship is implied by physical distance?
Rhythm and line: Do actors move quickly or slowly? Do they approach others

directly or indirectly? What do these patterns of movement convey about the
characters, their intentions, or their relationships?

Change: Does the actors’ use of areas, levels, distance, or rhythm and line change
during the performance? What does the change imply?

Relationship to audience: Do the actors speak and interact with each other as if the
audience weren’t there? Do the actors speak or physically interact with the audience?
What does this imply about the style of the performance?


A character’s costume includes his or her clothes, makeup, and hairstyle, and might also include
personal items such as a handbag or umbrella. While a costume may convey external aspects of a
character such as his/her profession and social class, it also suggests inner elements of character
such as mood and personality. Costume designers use color, texture, pattern, weight, as well as
historical period, to create a character’s costume. When analyzing costume choices in a
production, consider the following topics:

Socioeconomic class: What does the costume convey about the character’s position in
society? How is this information conveyed through texture, style, color, pattern,
weight, or fit of clothing?

Environmental conditions: What does the costume convey about time of year,
weather, geography, or other environmental conditions? How is this information
conveyed through texture, style, color, pattern, weight, or fit of clothing?

Occupation: What does the costume convey about how the character spends his/her
time? How is this information conveyed through texture, style, color, pattern, weight,
or fit of clothing?

Culture: What does the costume convey about cultural origins or affiliations? How is
this information conveyed through texture, style, color, pattern, weight, or fit of

Mood and temperament: What does the costume convey about the character’s state
of mind, preferences, habits, and way of life? How is this information conveyed
through texture, style, color, pattern, weight, or fit of clothing?

Relationship to the play and other characters: What does the costume convey about
the spirit and style of the play and the character’s relationship to other characters in the
play? How is this information conveyed through texture, style, color, pattern, weight,
or fit of clothing?

Costume changes: If a character changes costume, what does the change in costume
convey about the character’s actions or state of mind?

Movement potential: How does the costume facilitate or constrict the movement of
the actor? To what effect? Do the fabric and cut of the costume create movement when
the actor moves? Consider a heavy robe, a long train on a dress, or a silky, flowing
gown, for example.


Sound effects and music generate meaning, create mood, and enhance atmosphere or feeling in a
theatrical performance. In addition, directors and sound designers often use preshow music to
establish the initial mood of a performance or postshow music to prolong the final mood of a
performance. When analyzing sound in a production, consider the following topics:

Environmental conditions: What does the sound convey about time of year, weather,
geography, or other environmental conditions?

Style: Does the sound create a realistic sense of time and place? Or is the sound
symbolic or abstract?

Mood: Does the sound contribute to establishing the mood of the dramatic action?
Spooky sounds on a dark night, for example, might suggest a mysterious atmosphere,
or wind rustling the leaves of an aspen tree might suggest a cool, relaxing summer

Rhythm: Does the sound work with movement of the actors and the lighting to create
a specific pace for the dramatic action?

Volume: Is the sound a soft, background noise or a loud jolt? Why?
Live or recorded: Does the performance use live sound, recorded sound, or a mix? To

what effect?

Theatrical lighting serves not only the important practical purpose of making actors visible on
stage, but also the artistic purpose of conveying information and atmosphere about the dramatic
action. Lighting designers use the color, texture, intensity (brightness or dimness), direction, and
movement of light to help create the world of the play. When analyzing lighting choices in a
production, consider the following topics:

Focusing attention: How does the light focus attention to particular areas of the
stage? Are some areas more brightly lit than others? Is light used to provide scenic
transitions? Is absence of light important?

Texture and pattern: Does the light use texture or pattern to suggest scenic location
or environment? Leafy texture, for example, might suggest an exterior location, or a
window pattern an interior location.

Direction and color: Do the direction and color of the light mimic real life sources
such as the sun? Do the direction and color convey a mood or atmosphere? Is the color
warm or cool? Does the source of the light appear to move or change?

Style: Does the light create a realistic sense of time and space? Or is the light more
abstract, disobeying “real world” rules about the way light looks and behaves? Are
there lamps, chandeliers, or candles on the stage? What effect or mood do they create?

Rhythm: Does the light change quickly in texture, pattern, color, direction, intensity,
or movement? Or do the variations in look or feel of the lights happen slowly?



Though often overlooked, the audience is a critical element of theatrical production. In fact,
many theories of theatre are founded upon the assumption that the basic minimum requirements
for performance to occur are the presence of at least one audience member and at least one
performer. Theatre practitioners must take the audience into account in many ways in planning
and executing a production, including:

Presentational/Representational Style: Do the actors acknowledge the audience and
sometimes speak directly to them (Presentational style) or do the actors construct a
fictional world that the audience looks in on voyeuristically without the actors
acknowledging their presence (Representational style)?

Motion: Does the audience remain seated throughout the performance, or does the
audience move from place to place as part of the performance? Physical arrangement:
In theatres with flexible seating, how is the audience arranged? (On all sides of the
action? On three sides of the action?) Are there unusual seating choices, such as audience
members seated on the stage? Does the performance extend into the audiences seating
area, with performers directly interacting with audience members physically?

Emotional relationship to the action: Is the audience meant to be emotionally engaged
by the scenes unfolding onstage, or does the production take steps to keep the audience at
a critical distance? Is the audience meant to feel safe and comfortable, or does the
production confront the audience with uncomfortable or disorienting experiences?

Dramaturgical materials: What, if any, materials are provided to the audience to
contextualize the play, and how do they prepare the audience for the theatrical
experience? Is there a directors note? Historical background on the play? Images?
Special instructions to the audience?

Audience makeup: Is the audience made up largely of a group that knows one another
(school groups, for instance) or has special needs that must be taken into account (groups
with multiple language capabilities that require translation)? Is the audience required to
be here for a class? Is the group diverse in terms of age, socio-economic status, gender,
race, familiarity with the play in question, etc.? Has the production taken diversity into
account in its approach to the audience?


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