WK 4 Notes Reply


WK 4 Notes Reply

4-1 LL (200 words and one reference)
Cognitive processes store information into the memory affects their judgement and behavior towards others from different backgrounds. When an individual is raised with different perspectives poured into them, they take on these perspectives and incorporate them into how they view life. According to Amodio (2014), prejudice stems from a mechanism of survival, built on cognitive systems that structure the physical world, its function in modern society is complex and its effects are often causes damage. Many of these instances are not intentional, its more that it was how their brain was wired. The impact of culture on prejudice makes it common for individuals to normalize prejudice, because it was approved or promoted in their culture. According to Uhlmann (2013), Prejudices are often a way for a group of higher social status to explain and rationalize their privilege position in society. This is a main stance to consider with the gap of benefits and opportunities that are available to those of the minority (Or as they labeled). Once stereotypes and prejudice are formed, they become self perpetuating because they grow stronger inside the mind, similarly to the information we choose to study and gain insight on. The roots of prejudice can be found in the cognitive and emotional processes (Branscombe, 2016). By rewiring these processes, the root can be diminished.
4-1 KG (200 words and one reference)
A person’s beliefs and expectations regarding a particular group constitute the cognitive component of the prejudicial attitude. The cognitive approach, (cognitive theory of prejudice), suggests that prejudice is a function of cognitive processes where stereotypic information about social groups, stored in memory, is automatically activated and affects peoples judgments and behavior toward target group members. An example of this is believing that a product marketed by a celebrity is more valuable. While people like to believe that they are rational and logical, the fact is that people are continually under the influence of cognitive biases. These biases distort thinking, influence beliefs, and sway the decisions and judgments people make daily. These biases happen because we can’t evaluate every detail and event when forming thoughts and opinions. Because of this, we often rely on mental shortcuts that speed up our ability to make judgments, but sometimes lead to bias ( Saposnik, Redelmeier, Ruff & Tobler 2016). The psychological bases for prejudice are people’s values, the ways they see themselves and others, their sense of social identity, and social norms that define who is included in or excluded from social groups. The cognitive dimensions of prejudice relate to issues such as stereotypes and beliefs about outgroup members. Stereotype measures involve the endorsement of negative stereotypes about members of the outgroup. The source of prejudices comes from social differences, conformity, frustration-aggression, social identity, social categories, attribution, and stereotypes. Prejudice develops because of group formation, identification, and continuous interaction. Once groups are formed, group members learn the appropriate attitudes about themselves and other groups from others. A prejudiced person may not act on their attitude. Therefore, someone can be prejudiced towards a certain group but not discriminate against them. Also, prejudice includes all three components of an attitude (affective, behavioral, and cognitive), whereas discrimination just involves behavior.In terms of their development, both classic and contemporary research demonstrates that stereotypes and prejudice are learned through social communication and interaction. Stereotypes are just as strong, and prejudice is just as negative, about groups with which we have little contact as they are about groups with which we have frequent, everyday interaction. These results are difficult to account for from an outgroup-interaction perspective but follow naturally from the sharing of social norms among ingroup members. Furthermore, social norms have a strong influence on both the explicit expression of stereotypes and prejudice as well as the implicit cognitive representations of group beliefsthe knowledge itself (Sechrist & Stangor 2001). When people hold prejudicial attitudes toward others, they tend to view everyone with the defining characteristic as being all the same. They paint every individual who holds specific characteristics or beliefs with an extremely broad brush and fails to look at each person as a unique individual. Sometimes, prejudice is confused with discrimination. While prejudice involves having negative attitudes toward members of a certain group, discrimination occurs when those feelings are acted upon. There are numerous types of prejudice, some of which include: Ageism, Classism, Homophobia, Racism, & Sexism to name a few. Beliefs that are held about a specific group of people, in terms of their traits, behavior, and even characteristics are what we refer to as stereotypes. Stereotypes as cognitive frameworks that influence the processing of social information (Branscombe & Baron, 2016). A Stereotype is a simplified assumption about a group based on prior experiences or beliefs & is self-perpetuating in our minds, growing stronger with use just like information we actively try to cement in our memory. Going through the world making assumptions about other people with stereotypes weve learned is another form of mental practice. With more rehearsal, those assumptions get stronger over time, even when we have no tangible evidence to back them up stereotypes are the cognitive component of intergroup biases. Social scientists have uncovered the unsettling truth that no matter how egalitarian a person purports to be, their unconscious mind holds some racist, sexist or ageist thoughts. But a new study finds that this may say less about the person and more about the culture that surrounds him or her. The new study finds that while people are quick to associate word pairs that recall stereotypes (think “black – poor” versus “black – goofy”), this tendency is rooted not in the social meaning of the words, but in the likelihood of the words appearing together in literature and media. In other words, this implicit prejudice is driven more by culture than by any innate horribleness in the person (Pappas 2011.)
4-2 KK (200 words and one reference)
Institutions that treat individuals from diverse backgrounds, such as different races, ages, or even gender, differently than the majority of individuals is what we refer to as institutional bias (Branscombe & Baron, 2016). This went on a lot many generations ago in schools where the bulk of pupils were African American and pupils from another race were dealt with differently, this applies the new way around where we called white school where African Americans or pupils from another race were the minority. These minority groups are and still are being treated differently from those that are not in the group as you see institutional bias is still living today.
The following play a big part in institutional biases attitudes, stereotypes, and prejudices. It is these actions toward the minority groups that affect and shape how they are treated. As an individual, you may have never mistreated a minority group if it was not for these biases that have been spread. These attitudes and behaviors may not have been negative if it wasnt for the influences of the surroundings.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
WK 4 Notes Reply
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

Cultural influence can jolt institutional biases if the system does not have great programs in place that prevent any cultural bias and injustice. If the system does not take steps to stop any injustice, it can rapidly turn into an institutional bias that can hurt, and negatively jolt those of the minority groups.


help with three assgn/disc due in 24 hours

due in 24 hours

NOW Discussion
All primary discussion posts must be 100 words or more and at least 75 words when you are replying to another student and you must reply to at least one student.

The National Organization for Women’s Statement of Purpose demands “all the privileges and responsibilities thereof in truly equal partnership with men.” What privileges and responsibilities? How have women done since 1966 in your estimation?

WEEK 12 Assignment 2: DISCUSSION
Camilla Pagani, in her article The Role of Art in Society with Particular Reference to the Problem of Violence, argues that art nourishes our freedom. (page 9) By freedom, she refers to the concrete possibility for a human being to become profoundly aware of, and to express aptly all her/his affective and cognitive potentialities. Identify how has Art (including music, theatre) and other forms of self-expression been used by a specific American community of your choice to nourish the freedom of that community.

WEEK 12 Assignment 3: Short Essay
This week you watched a Youtube Video Aesthetics: Crash Course Philosophy #31 available at

Links to an external site.

. Do you agree with R. G. Collingwoods view in the video that art is best when it helps us live better lives? How can art, music, theatre, or even games and athletics help us live better lives?

WEEK 12 Reading
Read Black Women and Beauty Culture in 20th-Century America at

image1.png National Organization for Women, Statement of Purpose (1966)
National Organization for Women, Statement of Purpose (1966)

The National Organization for Women was founded in 1966 by prominent American feminists, including Betty Friedan, Shirley Chisolm, and others. The organizations statement of purpose laid out the goals of the organization and the targets of its feminist vision.

We, men and women, who hereby constitute ourselves as the National Organization for Women,believe that the time has come for a new movement toward true equality for all women in America, and toward a fully equal partnership of the sexes, as part of the world-wide revolution of human rights now taking place within and beyond our national borders.
The purpose of NOW is to take action to bring women into full participation in the mainstream of American society now, exercising all the privileges and responsibilities thereof in truly equal partnership with men.
We believe the time has come to move beyond the abstract argument, discussion and symposia over the status and special nature of women which has raged in America in recent years; the time has come to confront, with concrete action,the conditions that now prevent women from enjoying the equality of opportunity and freedom of which is their right, as individual Americans, and as human beings.
NOW is dedicated to the proposition that women, first and foremost, are human beings, who like all other people in our society, must have the chance to develop their fullest human potential.We believe that women can achieve such equality only by accepting to the full the challenges and responsibilities they share with all other people in our society, as part of the decision-making mainstream of American political, economic and social life.
We organize to initiate or support action, nationally, or in any part of this nation, by individuals or organizations, to break through the silken curtain of prejudice and discrimination against women in government, industry, and professions, the churches, the political parties, the judiciary, the labor unions, in education, science, medicine, law, religion and every other field of importance in American society. Enormous changes taking place in our society make it both possible and urgently necessary to advance the unfinished revolution of women toward true equality now.With a life span lengthened to nearly 75 years it is no longer either necessary or possible for women to devote the greatest part of their lives to child-rearing; yet childbearing and rearing which continues to be a most important part of most womens lives still is used to justify barring women from equal professional and economic participation and advance.

Despite all the talk about the status of American women in recent years, the actual position of women in the United States has declined, and is declining, to an alarming degree throughout the 1950s and 60s.Although 46.4% of all American women between the ages of 18 and 65 now work outside the home, the overwhelming majority 75% are in routine clerical, sales, or factory jobs, or they are household workers, cleaning women, hospital attendants. About two-thirds of Negro women workers are in the lowest paid service occupations. Working women are becoming increasingly not less concentrated on the bottom of the job ladder. As a consequence, full-time women workers today earn on the average only 60% of what men earn, and that wage gap has been increasing over the past twenty-five years in every major industry group. In 1964, of all women with a yearly income, 89% earned under $5,000 a year; behalf of all full-time year round women workers earned less than $3,690; only 1.4% of full-time year round women workers had an annual income of $10,000 or more.
Further, with higher education increasingly essential in todays society, too few women are entering and finishing college or going on to graduate or professional school.Today, women earn only one in three of the B.A.s and M.As granted, and one in ten of the Ph.D.s.
In all the professions considered of importance to society, and in the executive ranks of industry and government, women are losing ground. Where they are present it is only a token handful. Women comprise less than 1% of federal judges; less than 4% of all lawyers; 7% of doctors. Yet women represent 51% of the U.S. population. And, increasingly men are replacing women in the top positions in secondary and elementary schools, in social work, and in libraries once thought to be womens fields.
Official pronouncements of the advance in the status of women hide not only the reality of this dangerous decline, but the fact that nothing is being done to stop it.
Discrimination in employment on the basis of sex is now prohibited by federal law, in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The Commission has not made clear its intention to enforce the law with the same seriousness on behalf of women as of other victims of discrimination. Until now, too few womens organizations and official spokesmen have been willing to speak out against these dangers facing women.Too many women have been restrained by the fear of being called feminist.
There is no civil rights movement to speak for women, as there has been for Negroes and other victims of discrimination. The National Organization for Women must therefore begin to speak.
We believe that the power of American law, and the protection guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution to the civil rights of all individuals, must be effectively applied and enforced to isolate and remove patterns of sex discrimination, to ensure equality of opportunity in employment and education, and equality of civil and political rights and responsibilities on behalf of women, as well as for Negroes and other deprived groups.
We realize that womens problems are linked to many broader questions of social justice; their solution will require concerted action by many groups. Therefore, convinced that human rights for all are indivisible, we expect to give active support to the common cause of equal rights for all those who suffer discrimination and deprivation, and we call upon other organizations committed to such goals to support our efforts toward equality for women.

We believe that this nation has a capacity at least as great as other nations, to innovate new social institutions which will enable women to enjoy true equality of opportunity and responsibility in society, without conflict with their responsibilities as mothers and homemakers. Above all, we reject the assumption that these problems are the unique responsibility of each individual woman, rather than a basic social dilemma which society must solve. True equality of opportunity and freedom of choice for women requires such practical, and possible innovations as a nationwide network of child-care center which will make in unnecessary for women to retire completely from society until their children are grown, and national programs to provide retraining for women who have chosen the care for their own children full-time.

In the interest of the human dignity of women, we will protest, and endeavor to change, the false image of women now prevalent in the mass media, and in the texts, ceremonies, laws, and practices of our major social institutions. Such images perpetuate contempt for women by society and by women for themselves. We are similarly opposed to all policies and practices in church, state, college, factory, or office which, in the guise of protectiveness, not only deny opportunities but also foster in women self-denigration, dependence, and evasion of responsibility, undermine their confidence in their own abilities and foster contempt for women.

We believe that women will do most to create a new image of women by acting now, and by speaking out in behalf of their own equality, freedom, and human dignity not in pleas for special privilege, nor in enmity toward men, who are also victims of the current, half-equality between the sexes but in an active, self-respecting partnership with men.By so doing, women will develop confidence in their own ability to determine actively, in partnership with men, the conditions of their life, their choices, their future and their society.
[Source: National Organization for Women, Statement of Purpose (October 29, 1966). Available online via
The National Organization for Women(

.] Reading excerps from Helen Mitchell, Roots of Wisdom, Fourth Edition; Belmont, CA. 2005

Week 12 Start Here


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

Related Post


  I need help with an executive summary. Please see attachments.Write an Executive Summary (EXSUM) on the assigned Non-Commissioned Officer Common Core Competencies (NCOCCC) ofReadinesswhile balancing it against, ” FTX Mission

Open chat
💬 Need help?
Hello 👋
Can we help you?